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Abstract

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced in many places in living cells and at an increased rate during biotic or abiotic stress. ROS and RNS participate in signal transduction, but also modify cellular components and cause damage. We first look at the most common ROS and their properties. We then consider the ways in which the cell can regulate their production and removal. We critically assess current knowledge about modifications of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), DNA, carbohydrates, and proteins and illustrate this knowledge with case stories wherever possible. Some oxidative breakdown products, e.g., from PUFA, can cause secondary damage. Other oxidation products are secondary signaling molecules. We consider the fate of the modified components, the energetic costs to the cell of replacing such components, as well as strategies to minimize transfer of oxidatively damaged components to the next generation.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.arplant.58.032806.103946
2007-06-02
2024-04-19
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Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
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