1932

Abstract

The base excision repair pathway is an organism's primary defense against mutations induced by oxidative, alkylating, and other DNA-damaging agents. This pathway is initiated by DNA glycosylases that excise the damaged base by cleavage of the glycosidic bond between the base and the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone. A subset of glycosylases has an associated apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase activity that further processes the AP site to generate cleavage of the DNA phosphate backbone. Chemical mechanisms that are supported by biochemical and structural data have been proposed for several glycosylases and glycosylase/AP lyases. This review focuses on the chemical mechanisms of catalysis in the context of recent structural information, with emphasis on the catalytic residues and the active site conformations of several cocrystal structures of glycosylases with their substrate DNAs. Common structural motifs for DNA binding and damage specificity as well as conservation of acidic residues and amino groups for catalysis are discussed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.biochem.68.1.255
1999-07-01
2024-06-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.biochem.68.1.255
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.biochem.68.1.255
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error