▪ Abstract 

Tissue engineering is emerging as a significant clinical option to address tissue and organ failure by implanting biological substitutes for the compromised tissues. As compared to the transplantation of cells alone, engineered tissues offer the potential advantage of immediate functionality. Engineered tissues can also serve as physiologically relevant models for controlled studies of cells and tissues designed to distinguish the effects of specific signals from the complex milieu of factors present in vivo. A high number of ligament failures and the lack of adequate options to fully restore joint functions have prompted the need to develop new tissue engineering strategies. We discuss the requirements for ligament reconstruction, the available treatment options and their limitations, and then focus on the tissue engineering of ligaments. One representative tissue engineering system involving the integrated use of adult human stem cells, custom-designed scaffolds, and advanced bioreactors with dynamic loading is described.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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