▪ Abstract 

Paralyzed or paretic muscles can be made to contract by applying electrical currents to the intact peripheral motor nerves innervating them. When electrically elicited muscle contractions are coordinated in a manner that provides function, the technique is termed functional electrical stimulation (FES). In more than 40 years of FES research, principles for safe stimulation of neuromuscular tissue have been established, and methods for modulating the strength of electrically induced muscle contractions have been discovered. FES systems have been developed for restoring function in the upper extremity, lower extremity, bladder and bowel, and respiratory system. Some of these neuroprostheses have become commercialized products, and others are available in clinical research settings. Technological developments are expected to produce new systems that have no external components, are expandable to multiple applications, are upgradable to new advances, and are controlled by a combination of signals, including biopotential signals from nerve, muscle, and the brain.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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