Early development of the vertebrate skeleton depends on genes that pattern the distribution and proliferation of cells from cranial neural crest, sclerotomes, and lateral plate mesoderm into mesenchymal condensations at sites of future skeletal elements. Within these condensations, cells differentiate to chondrocytes or osteoblasts and form cartilages and bones under the control of various transcription factors. In most of the skeleton, organogenesis results in cartilage models of future bones; in these models cartilage is replaced by bone by the process of endochondral ossification. Lastly, through a controlled process of bone growth and remodeling the final skeleton is shaped and molded. Significant and exciting insights into all aspects of vertebrate skeletal development have been obtained through molecular and genetic studies of animal models and humans with inherited disorders of skeletal morphogenesis, organogenesis, and growth.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error