▪ Abstract 

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other retroviruses acquire their envelopes and spread infection by budding through the limiting membranes of producer cells. To facilitate budding, retroviruses usurp a cellular pathway that is normally used to create vesicles that bud into late endosomal compartments called multivesicular bodies (MVB). Research on yeast and human MVB biogenesis has led to the identification of ∼25 human proteins that are required for vesicle formation and for HIV-1 budding, and has produced a working model for sequential recruitment of these proteins during MVB vesicle formation. Retroviruses can redirect this machinery to the plasma membrane and leave the cell in a single step or, alternatively, can bud directly into MVB compartments and then exit cells via the exosome pathway. Remarkably, virus release from both the plasma membrane and MVB compartments can occur directionally into specialized sites of cell-to-cell contact called virological synapses. Thus retroviruses have evolved elaborate mechanisms for escaping the cell and maximizing their chances of infecting a new host.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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