Definition of the genus is almost as fraught as the definition of . We look at the evidence for “early ,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the ∼2.5–1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early ” or We also point to heterogeneity among “early African ,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan species is , known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing . This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of , but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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