1932

Abstract

Abstract

Dissolved gas in liquid is able to power violent eruptions. Two kinds of such gas-driven eruptions are known in nature: explosive volcanic eruptions driven by dissolved HO in magma at high temperatures and lake eruptions driven by dissolved CO in water at low temperatures. There are two known occurrences of lake eruptions, one in 1984 (Lake Monoun) and one in 1986 (Lake Nyos), both in Cameroon, Africa. The erupted CO gas asphyxiated ∼1700 people in the Lake Nyos eruption and 37 people at Lake Monoun. Here we review experimental simulations of CO-driven water eruptions and dynamic models of such eruptions, and a bubble plume theory is applied to the dynamics of lake eruptions. Field evidence, experimental results, and theoretical models show that lake eruptions can be violent, and theoretical calculations are consistent with the high exit velocities and eruption columns inferred from observations. Furthermore, the dynamics of lake degassing experiments are consistent with theoretical models. Other kinds of gas-driven eruptions are possible and may have occurred in nature in the past. A concentrated and large release of methane gas or hydrate from marine sediment may result in an ocean eruption. Furthermore, injection of liquid CO into oceans might also lead to ocean eruptions if care is not taken. The various kinetic and dynamic processes involved are examined and quantified.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.earth.34.031405.125001
2006-05-30
2024-06-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.earth.34.031405.125001
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.earth.34.031405.125001
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error