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Abstract

Abstract

Approximately 0.4% of explosive volcanic eruptions occur within a few days of large, distant earthquakes. This many “triggered” eruptions is much greater than expected by chance. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain triggering through changes in magma overpressure, including the growth of bubbles, the advection of large pressures by rising bubbles, and overturn of magma chambers. Alternatively, triggered eruptions may occur through failure of rocks surrounding stored magma. All these mechanisms require a process that enhances small static stress changes caused by earthquakes or that can convert (the larger) transient, dynamic strains into permanent changes in pressure. All proposed processes, in addition to viscoelastic relaxation of stresses, can result in delayed triggering of eruptions, although quantifying the connection between earthquakes and delayed, triggered eruptions is much more challenging. Mud volcanoes and geysers also respond to distant earthquakes. Mud volcanoes that discharge mud from depths greater than many hundreds of meters may be triggered by liquefaction caused by shaking, and may thus be similar to small mud volcanoes that originate within a few meters of the surface. Changes in permeability of the matrix surrounding main geyser conduits, by opening or creating new fractures, may explain the observed changes in their eruption frequency.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.earth.34.031405.125125
2006-05-30
2024-06-19
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  • Article Type: Review Article
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