The bluetongue viruses are transmitted to ruminants in North America by . US annual losses of approximately $125 million are due to restrictions on the movement of livestock and germplasm to bluetongue-free countries. Bluetongue is the most economically important arthropod-borne animal disease in the United States. Bluetongue is absent in the northeastern United States because of the inefficient vector ability there of for bluetongue. The vector of bluetongue virus elsewhere in the United States is . The three subspecies differ in vector competence for bluetongue virus in the laboratory. Understanding genetic variation controlling bluetongue transmission will help identify geographic regions at risk for bluetongue and provide opportunities to prevent virus transmission. Information on and bluetongue epidemiology will improve trade and provide information to protect US livestock from domestic and foreign arthropod-borne pathogens.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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