Indian megacities are among the most polluted in the world. Air concentrations of a number of air pollutants are much higher than levels recommended by the World Health Organization. In this paper, we focus on Mumbai and Delhi to characterize salient issues in health risks from particulate air (PM) pollution in Indian cities. We perform a synthesis of the literature for all elements of the causal chain of health risks—sources, exposure, and health effects—and provide estimates of source strengths, exposure levels, and health risks from air pollution in Indian cities. We also analyze the factors that lead to uncertainty in these quantities and provide an overall assessment of the state of scientific knowledge on air pollution in urban India.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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