Insect and mite pests cause serious damage to the hazelnut crop worldwide. The control strategies used against these pests include application of insecticides, classical and augmentative biological control, utilization of resistant varieties, and use of –based preparations. In the United States, extensive research has been directed toward elucidating ecological interactions among different pests and natural enemies and understanding the role of abiotic factors in pest population dynamics. Differences exist worldwide regarding the understanding of pests and natural enemy biologies and, to a limited extent, control practices. An integrated pest management approach based on utilizing effective sampling and monitoring techniques and a near complete reliance on biological control and “soft” pesticides, including insect growth regulators, is currently under development both in North America and Europe/Turkey. Hazelnuts are on the verge of becoming one of the first crops in the United States that could possibly be produced commercially without the use of any broad-spectrum organic insecticides.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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