Over the last four decades, a number of arthropod-borne infections have been recognized for the first time. Some have become of considerable public health importance, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and others are spreading geographically and their incidence is increasing. There has been an important recrudescence of several long-known vector-borne diseases. Malaria, leishmaniasis, dengue, and plague have resurged in numerous foci, in some cases where they were thought to be under effective control. In most instances, the appearance of new diseases and syndromes and the resurgence of old can be associated with ecological changes that have favored increased vector densities. Dam construction, irrigation and other development projects, urbanization, and deforestation have all resulted in changes in vector population densities that appear to have enabled the emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of old diseases. Greatly increased human travel has spread infectious agents, introducing them into areas in which they had been hitherto absent. It is essential to understand the factors that caused increased vector densities and hence the transmission of disease to prevent the emergence and resurgence of more diseases, as well as to serve as a basis for effective control.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Abranches P, Santos-Gomes GM, Campino L. 1993. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Portugal.. Arch. Inst. Pasteur Tunis 70(3–4):349–55 [Google Scholar]
  2. Addy M, Nandy A. 1992. Ten years of kala-azar in West Bengal, Part 1. Did post-dermal leishmaniasis initiate the outbreak in 24-Paraganas?. Bull. World Health Org. 70(3):341–46 [Google Scholar]
  3. Aksoy S, Ariturk S, Martine YK, Chang AKP, Dortbudak Z. et al. 1995. The GAP project in southeastern Turkey: the potential for emerging diseases.. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1(2):62–63 [Google Scholar]
  4. Amerasinghe FP, Ariyasena TG. 1990. Larval survey of surface water breeding mosquitoes during irrigation development in the Maahaweli Project, Sri Lanka.. J. Med. Entomol. 27(5):789–802 [Google Scholar]
  5. Armed Forces Pest Management Board 1993. Pediculosis pervasive in Russia.. Tech. Info. Bull. (Jan.–Feb.):5–6 [Google Scholar]
  6. Arraga-Alvarado C, Montero-Ojeda M, Bernardoni A, Anderson BE. 1996. Human ehrlichiosis: report of the 1st case in Venezuela.. Invest. Clin. 37(1):35–39 [Google Scholar]
  7. Deleted in proof
  8. Bakken JS, Dumler JS, Chen SM, Eckman MR, Van Etta LL, Walker DH. 1994. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in the upper Midwest United States: a new species emerging?. JAMA 272:212–18 [Google Scholar]
  9. Barrera R, Avila J, Gonzalez-Tellez S. 1993. Unreliable supply of potable water and elevated Aedes aegypti indices: a causal relationship?. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 9(2):189–95 [Google Scholar]
  10. Barrer RR, Machado-Allison CE, Bulla LA, Strong DR. 1982. Mosquitoes and mourning in the Caracas cemetery.. Antenna 6(3):250–52 [Google Scholar]
  11. Beaufils JP, Martin-Granel J, Jumelle P. 1995. Infection du chat par une Ehrlichia sp.: à propos de trois cas.. Pract. Med. Chir. Anim. Camp. 30(3):397–402 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bora D, Sing J, Bhattacharjee J, Kureel VR, Sing V. et al. 1994. An estimate of kala azar in 1991 in district Vaishalii and Bihar.. J. Commun. Dis. 26(2):120–22 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bouma MJ, Dye C, Van der Kaay HJ. 1996. Falciparum malaria and climate change in the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan.. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 55(2):131–37 [Google Scholar]
  14. Brouqui P, Houpikian P, Dupont HT, Toubiana P, Obadia V. et al. 1996. Survey of the seroprevalence of Bartonella quintana in homeless people.. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:756–59 [Google Scholar]
  15. Bozeman FM, Masiello SA, Williams MS, Elisberg BL. 1972. Epidemic typhus Rickettsiae isolated from flying squirrels.. Nature 255:545–47 [Google Scholar]
  16. Carmago LMA, Ferreira MU, Krieger H, de Carmago EP, da Sila LP. 1994. Unstable hypoendemic malaria in Rondonia (Western Amazon Region, Brazil): epidemic outbreaks and work associated incidence in an agro- industrial rural settlement.. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 51(1):16–25 [Google Scholar]
  17. Centers for Disease Control 1984. Epidemic typhus—Georgia.. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 33(43):618–19 [Google Scholar]
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1996. Probable locally acquired mosquito-transmitted Plasmodium vivax infection—Georgia, 1996.. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46(12):264–67 [Google Scholar]
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1997. Lyme disease, 1994–1996—USA.. Morbid. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46(23):531–35 [Google Scholar]
  20. Chang MS, Hii J, Buttner P, Mansoor F. 1997. Changes in abundance and behaviour of vector mosquitoes induced by land use during the development of an oil palm planatation.. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 91:382–86 [Google Scholar]
  21. Chaniotis B, Garcia GG, Tselentis Y. 1994. Leishmaniasis in greater Athens, Greece. Entomological studies.. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 88(6):659–63 [Google Scholar]
  22. Cook GC. 1992. The effect of global warming on the distribution of parasitic and other infectious diseases.. J. R. Soc. Trop. Med. 85(11):688–90 [Google Scholar]
  23. Corbet PS, Williams MC, Gillett JD. 1961. O'nyong nyong fever: an epidemic virus disease in East Africa. IV. Vector studies at epidemic sites.. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 55:463–80 [Google Scholar]
  24. Coosemans MH. 1985. Comparison de l'endémie malarienne dans une zone de riziculture et dans une zone de culture de coton dans la plaine de la Rusizi, Burundi.. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop. 65(2):187–200 [Google Scholar]
  25. Costa CHN, Pereira HF, Araujo MV. 1990. Epidemia de leishmaniose visceral no estado do Piaui, Brasil, 1980–1986.. Rev. Saude Publ. Sao Paulo 24(5):361–72 [Google Scholar]
  26. Dalton MJ, Clarke MJ, Holman RC, Krebs JW, Fishbein DB. et al. 1995. National surveillance for Rocky Mountain spotted fever 1981–1992: epidemiologic summary and evaluation of risk factors for fatal outcome.. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52(5):405–13 [Google Scholar]
  27. Davies CR, Llanos-Cuentas A, Canales J, Leon E, Alvarez F. et al. 1994. The rise and fall of Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis: transient impact of DDT.. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 88:389–93 [Google Scholar]
  28. Dennis DT. 1994. Plague in India: lessons for public health everywhere.. Br. Med. J. (Clin. Res. Ed.) 309(6959):893–94 [Google Scholar]
  29. Dennis DT, Hughes JM. 1997. Multidrug resistance in plague.. N. Engl. J. Med. 337(10):702–4 [Google Scholar]
  30. Devkota UN. 1993. Descriptive epidemiology of visceral lesihmaniasis in Nepal, 1993.. J. Nepal Med. Assoc. 31(108):329–36 [Google Scholar]
  31. Dixon RA, Pinikakana JP. 1994. Malaria and proximity to irrigation projects: a parasitaemia prevalence study from Sri Lanka.. Mosq. Borne Dis. Bull. 11(4):116–21 [Google Scholar]
  32. Dossou-Yovo J, Doannio J, Riviere F, Duval J. 1994. Rice cultivation and malaria transmission in Bouake City (Côte d'Ivoire).. Acta Trop. 57:91–94 [Google Scholar]
  33. El Hassan AM, Hashim FA, Siddig A, Ghalib HW, Ziljistra E. 1993. Kala azar in western Upper Nile Province in the southern Sudan and its spread to a nomadic tribe from the north.. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 87:395–98 [Google Scholar]
  34. Emmons RW. 1988. Ecology of Colorado tick fever.. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 42:49–64 [Google Scholar]
  35. Fishbein DB, Dennis DT. 1995. Tick-borne diseases—a growing risk.. N. Engl. J. Med. 333(7):452–53 [Google Scholar]
  36. Forattini OP. 1986. Identificacao de Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus no Brasil.. Rev. Saude Publ. São Paulo 20(3):244–45 [Google Scholar]
  37. Frankie GW, Ehler LE. 1978. Ecology of insects in urban environments.. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 23:367–87 [Google Scholar]
  38. Freier JE. 1994. Eastern equine encephalitis. In Health and Climate Change,. Lancet,18–19 [Google Scholar]
  39. Garavelli PL, Corti E. 1992. Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax: the first case in Brazil.. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 86:128 [Google Scholar]
  40. Giglioli G. 1963. Ecological change as a factor in renewed malaria transmission in an eradicated area.. Bull. World Health Org. 29:131–45 [Google Scholar]
  41. Gillett JD, Williams MC, Woodall JP, Corbet PS, Ellice JM. 1960. O'nyong nyong fever: an epidemic virus disease in East Africa.. East Afr. Virus Res. Inst. Rep.,9–11 East Afr. Virus Res. Inst., Entebbe, Uganda [Google Scholar]
  42. Gonzalez R, Suarez MF. 1995. Sewers: the principal Aedes aegypti breeding sites in Cali, Colombia.. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 53(2):160 (Abstr [Google Scholar]
  43. Gradoni L, Bryceson A, Desjeux P. 1995. Treatment of Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis.. Bull. World Health Org. 73(2):191–97 [Google Scholar]
  44. Gratz NG. 1973. Mosquito-borne disease problems in the urbanization of tropical countries.. Crit. Rev. Environ. Control 3(4):455–95 [Google Scholar]
  45. Gratz NG. 1987. The impact of rice production on vector-borne disease problems in developing countries. In Vector-Borne Disease Control in Humans Through Rice Agroecosystem Management, ed. WH Smith, EP Cerrantes 7–12 Manila, Philippines: Int. Rice Res. Inst
  46. Gratz NG. 1988. Rodents and human disease: a global appreciation. In Rodent Pest Management, ed. I Prakesh 101–69 Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
  47. Gratz NG. 1993. Lessons of Aedes aegypti control in Thailand.. Med. Vet. Entomol. 7(1):1–10 [Google Scholar]
  48. Gratz NG. 1993. What must we do to efficiently control Aedes aegypti.. Trop. Med. 35(4):243–51 [Google Scholar]
  49. Gratz NG, Knudsen AB. 1996. The rise and spread of dengue, dengue haemorrhagic fever and its vectors. A historical review (up to 1995).. World Health Org. Doc. CTD/FIL(DEN)96.7. Geneva: World Health Org 197 pp.
  50. Groot H. 1980. The reinvasion of Colombia by Aedes aegypti: aspects to remember.. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 29(3):330–38 [Google Scholar]
  51. Halstead SB. 1992. The XXth century dengue pandemic: need for surveillance and research.. World Health Stat. Q. 45:292–98 [Google Scholar]
  52. Halstead SB. 1993. Global epidemiology of dengue: health systems in disarray.. Trop. Med. 35(4):137–46 [Google Scholar]
  53. Hanna JN, Ritchie SA, Phillips DA, Shield J, Bailey NC. et al. 1996. An outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in the Tores Strait, Australia, 1995.. Med. J. Aust. 165:256–60 [Google Scholar]
  54. Hawkes RA, Boughton CR, Naim HM, Myrick BA, Ramsay LG. 1987. Barmah Forest virus infections in humans in New South Wales.. Med. J. Aust. 146(11):569–73 [Google Scholar]
  55. Hii J. 1977. A resurvey of potential vectors of dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever in Sabah.. Med. J. Malays. 32:193–96 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hoch AL, Roberts DR, Pinheiro FDP. 1986. Breeding sites of Culicoides paraensis and options for control by environmntal management.. Bull. Pan Am. Health Org. 20(3):284–93 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hoch AL, Roberts DR, Pinheiro FP. 1990. Host seeking behaviour and seasonal abundance of Culicoides paraensis (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) in Brazil.. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 6(1):110–14 [Google Scholar]
  58. Hoogstraal H. 1966. Ticks in relation to human diseases caused by viruses.. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 11:261–308 [Google Scholar]
  59. Hoogstraal H. 1967. Ticks in relation to human diseases caused by Rickettsia species.. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 12:377–420 [Google Scholar]
  60. Hoogstraal H. 1981. Changing patterns of tickborne diseases in modern society.. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 25:75–99 [Google Scholar]
  61. Hunter JM, Rey L, Scott D. 1982. Man-made lakes and man-made diseases.. Soc. Sci. Med. 16:1127–45 [Google Scholar]
  62. Ibanez-Bernal S, Martinez-Campos C. 1994. Aedes albopictus in Mexico.. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 10(2):231–32 [Google Scholar]
  63. Jackson LA, Spach DH. 1996. Emergence of Bartonella quintana infection among homeless persons.. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2(2):141–43 [Google Scholar]
  64. Jackson LA, Spach DH, Kippen DA, Regnery RL, Sayers MH, Stamm WE. 1996. Seroprevalence to Bartonella quintana among patients at a community clinic in downtown Seattle.. J. Infect. Dis. 173(4):1023–26 [Google Scholar]
  65. Jetten TH, Martens WJM, Takken W. 1996. Model simulations to estimate malaria risk under climate change.. J. Med. Entomol. 33(3):361–71 [Google Scholar]
  66. Johnson BK. 1988. O'nyong-nyong virus disease. In The Arboviruses: Epidemiology, Ecology. ed. TP Monath 3217–23 Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
  67. Johnson BK, Gichogo A, Gitau G, Patel N, Ademba G. et al. 1981. Recovery of o'nyong nyong virus from Anopheles funestus in western Kenya.. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75(2):239–41 [Google Scholar]
  68. Joshi DD, Gurbacharya VL, Shrestha SL. 1986. Status of leishmaniasis in Nepal.. J. Inst. Med. 8:7–12 [Google Scholar]
  69. Keysary A, Waner T, Rosner M, Warner CK, Dawson JE. et al. 1996. The first isolation, in vitro propagation and gentic characterization of Ehrlichia canis in Israel.. Vet. Parasitol. 62(3/4):331–40 [Google Scholar]
  70. Kilbourne ED. 1996. The emergence of “emerging diseases”: a lesson in holistic epidemiology.. Mt. Sinai J. Med. 63(3–4):159–66 [Google Scholar]
  71. Knudsen AB. 1995. Geographic spread of Aedes albopictus in Europe and the concern among public health authroities.. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 11:345–48 [Google Scholar]
  72. Kouri G, Guzman MG, Bravo J. 1986. Hemorrhagic dengue in Cuba: history of an epidemic.. Pan. Am. Health Org. Bull. 20(1):24–30 [Google Scholar]
  73. Deleted in proof
  74. Lacy LA, Lacy CM. 1990. The medical importance of riceland mosquitoes and their control using alternatives to chemical insecticides.. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 6(2):1–93 [Google Scholar]
  75. Lane RP. 1991. The contribution of sandfly control to leishmaniasis control.. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop. 71(1):65–74 [Google Scholar]
  76. Lane RS, Piesman J, Burgdorfer W. 1991. Lyme borreliosis: relation of its causative agent to its vectors and hosts in North America.. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 36:587–609 [Google Scholar]
  77. Levins R, Awerbuch T, Brinkman U, Eckardtt I, Epstein P. et al. 1994. The emergence of new diseases.. Am. Sci. 82:52–60 [Google Scholar]
  78. Lindsay MDA, Johansen CA, Broom AK, Smith DW, Mackenzie JS. 1995. Emergence of Barmah Forest virus in Western Australia.. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1(1):22–26 [Google Scholar]
  79. Lockhart JM, Davidson WR, Dawson JE, Stallknecht DE. 1995. Temporal association of Amblyomma americanum with the presence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis reactive antibodies in white-tailed deer.. J. Wildl. Dis. 31:119–24 [Google Scholar]
  80. Loevinsohn ME. 1994, . Climatic warming and increased malaria incidence in Rwanda.. Lancet 343(8899):714–18 [Google Scholar]
  81. Luh PL. 1984. Effects of rice growing on the population of disease vectors.. FAO Irrig. Drain. Pap. 41:130–32 [Google Scholar]
  82. McDade JE. 1987. Flying squirrels and their ectoparasites: disseminators of epidemic typhus.. Parasitol. Today 3(3):85–87 [Google Scholar]
  83. McDade JE, Shepard CC, Redus MA, Newhouse VF, Smith JD. 1980. Evidence of Rickettsia prowazeki infections in the United States.. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 29(2):277–84 [Google Scholar]
  84. McMichael AJ, Haines A. 1997. Global climate change: the potential effects on health.. Br. Med. J. 315:805–9 [Google Scholar]
  85. Maeda K, Markowitz N, Hawley RC, Ristic M, Cox D, McDade J. 1987. Human infection with Ehrlichia canis, a leukocytic rickettsia.. N. Engl. J. Med. 316:853–56 [Google Scholar]
  86. Marlar-Than, Myat-Phone-Kyaw, Aye- Yu-Soe, Khaing-Khaing-Gyi, Ma-Sabai, Myint-Oo. 1995. Development of resistance to chloroquine by Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar.. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 89:307–8 [Google Scholar]
  87. Malaria Weekly 1995. Malaria kills thousands in India.. Malaria Wkly. April 3 [Google Scholar]
  88. Mathur KK, Harpalani G, Kalra NL, Murthy GGK, Narasimham MVVL. 1992. Epidemic of malaria in Barmer district (Thar Desert) of Rajasthan during 1990.. Indian J. Malariol. 29(1):1–10 [Google Scholar]
  89. Metselaar D, Grainger CR, Oei KG, Reynolds DG, Pudney M. et al. 1980. An outbreak of type 2 dengue fever in the Seychelles, probably transmitted by Aedes albopictus.. Bull. World Health Org. 58(6):937–43 [Google Scholar]
  90. Mitchell CJ, Miller BR. 1990. Vertical transmission of dengue viruses by strains of Aedes albopictus recently introduced into Brazil.. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 6(2):251–57 [Google Scholar]
  91. Mitchell CJ, Miller BR, Gubler DJ. 1987. Vector competence of Aedes albopictus from Houston, Texas for dengue serotypes 1 to 4, yellow fever and Ross River viruses.. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 3(3):460–65 [Google Scholar]
  92. Morais JD, Dawson JE, Greene C, Filipe AR, Gallhardes LC, Bacellar F. 1991. First European cases of ehrlichiosis—(correspondence).. Lancet 338(8767):633–34 [Google Scholar]
  93. Morse SS. 1995. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases.. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1(1):7–15 [Google Scholar]
  94. Moy JA, Sanchez MR. 1992. The cutaneous manifestations of violence and poverty.. Arch. Dermatol. 128:829–39 [Google Scholar]
  95. Nandan G. 1994. Malaria tests India's public health system.. Br. Med. J. 309:1183–84 [Google Scholar]
  96. Ogata K, Samaayoa AL. 1996. Discovery of Aedes albopictus in Guatemala.. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 12(3):503–6 [Google Scholar]
  97. Ozbel Y, Ruhuyan N, Budak S. 1993. A study on the distribution of Phlebotomus spp. in Izmir, Turkey.. Turk. Parazit. Derg. 17(3/4):101–7 [Google Scholar]
  98. PAHO 1988. Epidemiological status of malaria in the region of the Americas.. PAHO. Epidemiol. Bull. 9(1):10–14 [Google Scholar]
  99. PAHO 1993. PAHO Advisory: Aedes albopictus in the Caribbean.. PAHO Epidemiol. Bull. 14(3):15–16 [Google Scholar]
  100. Pandya AP. 1983. Impact of house spraying on phlebotomid population in Surat district. Gujurat.. Indian J. Med. Res. 78:354–60 [Google Scholar]
  101. Papadopoulo B, Tselentis Y. 1994. Sandflies in the greater Athens region, Greece.. Parasite 1:131–40 [Google Scholar]
  102. Parzy D, Davoust B, Raphenon G, Vidor E. 1991. L'ehrlichiose canine au Sénégal: ênquette seroépidemiologique humaine et canine à Dakar.. Med. Trop. 51(1):59–63 [Google Scholar]
  103. Perez M, Rikihisa Y, Wen BH. 1996. Ehrlichia canis-like agent isolated from a man in Venezuela: antigenic and genetic characterization.. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34(9):2133–39 [Google Scholar]
  104. Pinikahana J, Dixon RA. 1993. Trends in malaria morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka.. Indian J. Malariol. 30(2):51–55 [Google Scholar]
  105. Punda-Polic V, Leko-Grbic J, Radulovic S. 1995. Prevalence of antibodies to rickettsiae in the north-western part of Bosnia and Herzegovina.. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 11:697–99 [Google Scholar]
  106. Ramsdale CD, Haas E. 1978. Some aspects of epidemiology of resurgent malaria in Turkey.. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72(6):570–80 [Google Scholar]
  107. Rawlings P, Herath PRJ, Kelly S. 1985. Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera:Culicidae): DDT resistance in Sri Lanka prior to and after cessation of DDT spraying.. J. Med. Entomol. 22(4):361–65 [Google Scholar]
  108. Reed GH. 1993. Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.. J. Environ. Health 55(8):6–10 [Google Scholar]
  109. Reeves WC, Hardy JL, Reisen WK, Milby MM. 1994. Potential effect of global warming on mosquito-borne arboviruses.. J. Med. Entomol. 31(3):323–32 [Google Scholar]
  110. Reider N, Gothe R. 1993. [Ehrlichiosis in dogs in Germany: fauna, biology and ecology of the causative agent, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, thereapy, and prophylaxis.]. Kleintierpraxis 38(12):775–90 (from German [Google Scholar]
  111. Relman DA. 1995. Has trench fever returned?. N. Engl. J. Med. 332(7):463–64 [Google Scholar]
  112. Robert V, Gazin P, Boudin C, Molex JF, Ouedrago V, Carnevale P. 1985. La transmission du paludisme en zone de savane arborée et en zone rizacole des environs de Bobo Diolasso.. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop. 65(2):201–04 [Google Scholar]
  113. Romi R, Pierdominici G, Severini C, Tamburro A, Cocchi M. et al. 1997. Status of malaria vectors in Italy.. J. Med. Entomol. 34(3):263–71 [Google Scholar]
  114. Rosa APAT, Rodrigues SG, Nunes MRT, Magalhaes MTF, Rosa JFS, Vasconcelos PFC. 1996. Epidemia de febre do Oropouche em Serra Pelada municipo de Curionpolis, Para. 1994.. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 29(6):537–41 [Google Scholar]
  115. Rupes V, Chmela J, Kapoun S. 1992. Finding of body lice (Pediculus humanus L.) in Czechoslovakia.. Cs. Epidem. Mikrob. Immun. 41(6):362–65 [Google Scholar]
  116. Russel RC. 1994. Ross River virus; disease trends and vector ecology in Australia.. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 19(1):73–81 [Google Scholar]
  117. Rwaguma EB, Lutwama JJ, Sempala SDK, Kiwanuka N, Kamugisha J. et al. 1997. Emergence of epidemic O'nyong-nyong fever in southwestern Uganda, after an absence of 35 years.. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3(1):77 [Google Scholar]
  118. Savage HM, Smith GC. 1995. Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in the Americas: implications for arbovirus transmission and identification of damaged adult female specimens.. PAHO Bull. 118(6):473–78 [Google Scholar]
  119. Sawyer DR. 1986. Malaria on the Amazon frontier: economic and social aspects of transmission and control.. Southeast Asia J. Trop. Med. Public Health 17(3):342–45 [Google Scholar]
  120. Schaffner W, Standaert SM. 1996. Ehrlichiosis—in pursuit of an emerging infection.. N. Engl. J. Med. 334(4):262–63 [Google Scholar]
  121. Schorscher JA, Goris M. 1992. Incrimination of Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis as a vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the western Upper Nile province, southern Sudan.. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 86:622–23 [Google Scholar]
  122. Seaman J, Mercer AJ, Sondrop E. 1995. The epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis in western Upper Nile, southern Sudan: course and impact from 1984 to 1994.. Int. J. Epidemiol. 25(4)862–71 [Google Scholar]
  123. Service MW. 1989. Rice, a challenge to health.. Parasitol. Today 5(5):162–64 [Google Scholar]
  124. Service MW. 1990. Control of urban mosquitoes.. Pestic. Outl. 1(2):17–20 [Google Scholar]
  125. Sharma VP, Prasttisuk C, Kondrshin AV. 1991. Magnitude of forest related malaria in the WHO Southeast Asia Region. In Forest-Related Malaria, ed. VP Sharma, AU Kondrashin 18–22 Delhi, India: Malaria Res. Center
  126. Shukla RP, Pandey AC, Mathur A. 1995. Investigation of malaria outbreak in Rajasthan.. Indian J. Malariol. 32(3):119–28 [Google Scholar]
  127. Slimani D. 1997. Plague in India in 1994: Does it indicate a world threat?. Santé Publique 9(2):123–34 [Google Scholar]
  128. Soekiman S, Konishi E, Matsumura T. 1987. A comparative study on growth of dengue type 3 and chikgungunya viruses in Indonesian colonies of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.. Jpn. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 15(1):37–41 [Google Scholar]
  129. Soper FL. 1963. Aegypti and gambiae: eradication of African invaders in the Americas.. Proc. 50th Ann. Meet. New Jersey Mosq. Exterm. Comm.,152–60 [Google Scholar]
  130. Spielman A, Wilson ML, Levine JF, Piesman J. 1985. Ecology of Ixodes dammini–borne human babesiosis and Lyme disease.. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 30:439–60 [Google Scholar]
  131. Sprenger D, Wuithiranyagool T. 1986. The discovery of Aedes albopictus in Harris County, Texas.. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 2(2):217–18 [Google Scholar]
  132. Suarez MF, Nelson MJ. 1981. Registro de altitud del Aedes aegypti en Colombia.. Biomedica 1(4):225 [Google Scholar]
  133. Sumption KJ, Wright DJM, Cutler SJ, Dale BAS. 1995. Human ehrlichiosis in the UK.. Lancet 345(8988):1487–88 [Google Scholar]
  134. Taubes G. 1997. Apocalypse not.. Science 27:1004–6 [Google Scholar]
  135. Tesh RB. 1995. Control of zoonotic leishmaniasis: Is it time to change strategies?. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52(3):287–92 [Google Scholar]
  136. Thakur CP, Kumar M. 1992. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a neglected aspect of kala-azar control programmes.. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 86(4):355–59 [Google Scholar]
  137. Thakur CP, Kumar M, Pathak PK. 1981. Kala-azar hits again.. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 84:271–76 [Google Scholar]
  138. Tolezano JE. 1994. Ecoepidemiological aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 89(3):427–34 [Google Scholar]
  139. Tompkins LS. 1997. Of cats, humans, and Bartonella.. N. Engl. J. Med. 337(26):1916–17 [Google Scholar]
  140. Tonn RJ, Bang YH, Yasuno M. 1969. Water and mosquito populations in Bangkok, Thailand.. WHO document WHO/VBC/69.166
  141. Tselentis Y, Gikas A, Chaniotis B. 1994. Kala-azar in the Athens basin.. Lancet 343:1636 [Google Scholar]
  142. Van den Abbeele K, Van den Enden E, Van den Ende J. 1995. Combined choroquine and primaquine resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in a patient returning from India.. Ann. Soc. Belge Méd. Trop. 75:73–74 [Google Scholar]
  143. van der Laan JR, Smit RB. 1996. Back again: the clothes louse (Pediculus humanus var, caporis).. Ned. Tijdschr Geneeskd. 140:1912–15 [Google Scholar]
  144. Voinov IN, Votyakov VI. 1992. Influence of socio-economic and ecological conditions on tickborne encephalitis morbidity in populated areas.. Med. Parazit. 1:34–37 (from Russian [Google Scholar]
  145. Walker DH, Dumler JS. 1996. Emergence of the ehrlichioses as human health problems.. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2(1):18–29 [Google Scholar]
  146. Williams MC, Woodall JP. 1961. O'nyong-nyong fever: an epidemic virus disease in East Africa. II. Isolation and some properties of the virus.. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 55:135–41 [Google Scholar]
  147. Wilson ME. 1995. Travel and the emergence of infectious diseases.. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1(2):39–46 [Google Scholar]
  148. World Health Org 1997. World malaria situation in 1994. Part I. Population at risk.. Wkly. Epidem. Rec. 72(36):269–74 [Google Scholar]
  149. World Health Org 1995. Abovirus surveillance—Australia.. Wkly. Epidem. Rec. 70(49):347–48 [Google Scholar]
  150. World Health Org 1997. World malaria situation in 1994, Part III. Europe, South-East Asia, Western Pacific.. Wkly. Epidem. Rec. 72(38):285–90 [Google Scholar]
  151. Wufang F, Shurong Y, Cosgriff TM. 1989. The remergence of dengue in China.. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11(4):S784–93 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error