Insects, including , readily respond to toxins such as phytotoxins, metal ions, and insecticides in their environment by evolving resistance. Although are seldom targets for insecticides, nevertheless populations worldwide have evolved resistance to a variety of insecticides, and these resistance alleles persist in high frequency. In many cases, use the same genetic and biochemical mechanisms that underlie resistance in pest insects, including single-site changes in target molecules resulting from point mutations and upregulation of degradative enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 enzymes and glutathione S-transferases. However, several types of resistance found in pest insects, such as gene amplification and knock-down resistance, have not been reported in field populations. Excellent -plant models are being studied to understand the adaptation to phytotoxins; P450 enzymes are clearly involved in phytotoxin resistance in one of these models. The genetic advantages of , including availability of the sequenced genome, should allow further study of these genes and identification of new ones, particularly regulatory genes, responsible for resistance.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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