▪ Abstract 

Effective indoor residual spraying against malaria vectors depends on whether mosquitoes rest indoors (i.e., endophilic behavior). This varies among species and is affected by insecticidal irritancy. Exophilic behavior has evolved in certain populations exposed to prolonged spraying programs. Optimum effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets presumably depends on vectors biting at hours when most people are in bed. Time of biting varies among different malaria vector species, but so far there is inconclusive evidence for these evolving so as to avoid bednets. Use of an untreated net diverts extra biting to someone in the same room who is without a net. Understanding choice of oviposition sites and dispersal behavior is important for the design of successful larval control programs including those using predatory mosquito larvae. Prospects for genetic control by sterile males or genes rendering mosquitoes harmless to humans will depend on competitive mating behavior. These methods are hampered by the immigration of monogamous, already-mated females.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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