▪ Abstract 

The mating system of each species is a unique, dynamic suite of interactions between the sexes. In this review I describe these interactions in the families of flies that contain blood-feeding species. A transition from the aerial swarm, with rapid copulae and no direct female choice, to substrate-based systems with lengthy copulae and opportunities for female choice is evident at both a phylogenetic scale and within nematoceran families under specific ecological conditions. Female monogamy is associated with the former, polyandry with the latter. I suggest that the intensity of sexual selection operating on males in systems where the probability of mating is low has favored male ability to control female receptivity. Reproductive success of males is universally correlated to successful foraging for sugar or blood and (in some species and ecological conditions) to body size. Understanding the ecological basis of the mating systems of these flies will help formulate integrative, sustainable, and biologically lucid approaches for their control.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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