Upon interaction with pathogenic Pseudomonads or symbiotic Rhizobia, or after wounding by abrasion or insects, the plant reacts in superficially different ways, leading to either a close association or defense against the intruder. However, a closer examination reveals that similar genes and metabolic pathways are induced. This raises the possibility that signal perception and transduction proceed via similar pathways, leading to overlaps in the response reaction. This review compares current knowledge of the plant reaction to apparently different biotic and abiotic stimuli, and highlights that within the course of evolution similar response mechanisms were adapted to specific needs.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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