T cell activation is dependent upon signals delivered through the antigen-specific T cell receptor and accessory receptors on the T cell. A primary costimulatory signal is delivered through the CD28 receptor after engagement of its ligands, B7-1 (CD80) or B7-2 (CD86). Engagement of CTLA-4 (CD152) by the same B7-1 or B7-2 ligands results in attenuation of T cells responses. Recently, molecular homologs of CD28 and CTLA-4 receptors and their B7-like ligands have been identified. ICOS is a CD28-like costimulatory receptor with a unique B7-like ligand. PD-1 is an inhibitory receptor, with two B7-like ligands. Additional members of B7 and CD28 gene families have been proposed. Integration of signals through this family of costimulatory and inhibitory receptors and their ligands is critical for activation of immune responses and tolerance. Understanding these pathways will allow development of new strategies for therapeutic intervention in immune-mediated diseases.

Keyword(s): ICOSPD-1PD-LT cell activationtolerance

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  • Article Type: Review Article
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