Lymphocytes arise from hematopoietic stem cells through the coordinated action of transcription factors. The E proteins (E12, E47, HEB and E2-2) have emerged as key regulators of both B and T lymphocyte differentiation. This review summarizes the current data and examines the various functions of E proteins and their antagonists, Id2 and Id3, throughout lymphoid maturation. Beyond an established role in B and T lineage commitment, E proteins continue to be essential at subsequent stages of development. E protein activity regulates the expression of surrogate and antigen receptor genes, promotes Ig and TCR rearrangements, and coordinates cell survival and proliferation with developmental progression in response to TCR signaling. Finally, this review also discusses the role of E47 as a tumor suppressor.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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