This review focuses on the characterization of interfaces, specifically on the optical methods of characterization that utilize some form of spatial localization to circumvent the special problems accruing to interfaces. Experiments utilizing radiation in only the infrared through the ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum are considered. We specifically exclude the vast and important array of experimental techniques that utilize the vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray spectral regions. In addition, the interfaces considered are those composed of solids with liquids, thin films, and other solids, thus largely ignoring the literature of ultrahigh vacuum surface science.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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