When mirror-polished, flat, and clean wafers of almost any material are brought into contact at room temperature, they are locally attracted to each other by van der Waals forces and adhere or bond. This phenomenon is referred to as wafer bonding. The most prominent applications of wafer bonding are silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices, silicon-based sensors and actuators, as well as optical devices. The basics of wafer-bonding technology are described, including microcleanroom approaches, prevention of interface bubbles, bonding of III-V compounds, low-temperature bonding, ultra-high vacuum bonding, thinning methods such as smart-cut procedures, and twist wafer bonding for compliant substrates. Wafer bonding allows a new degree of freedom in design and fabrication of material combinations that previously would have been excluded because these material combinations cannot be realized by the conventional approach of epitaxial growth.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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