Three methods have recently been developed to enhance the formation of the low-resistivity C54 phase of TiSi, the most widely used silicide contact in ultra-large-scale integration devices. These methods are () ion implantation of a transition metal into the Si before Ti deposition; () deposition of a thin transition metal interlayer between the Si and Ti; and () codeposition of Ti alloyed with a transition metal. Each of these methods decreases the C49-to-C54 transformation temperature by >100°C and improves the probability of phase formation in narrow lines by increasing the nucleation site density. In this paper, we identify the aspects of phase formation that are shared by these three methods, review the methodology by which they were developed, and summarize the applications to silicon devices. Mechanisms that are responsible for the enhanced formation of C54 TiSi are reviewed, based on a combination of temperature-controlled in situ measurements of resistance, X-ray diffraction, and optical scattering, coupled with ex situ studies of phase formation and morphology. The main mechanisms are identified as enhanced nucleation of the C54 phase by a reduction of grain size in the C49 phase and the creation of crystallographic templates of the C40 disilicide phase and the metal-rich TiSi phase.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error