The use of energetic particles (ions and atoms) has become increasingly important in physical vapor deposition techniques. These deposition processes can be divided in two main classes: ion beam-assisted deposition and energetic condensation (or deposition). This review focuses on the latter, i.e. processes in which the actual depositing species have energies that far exceed ordinary thermal energies, namely energies greater than 20 eV. The phenomenology of the effect of these high-energy particles on the growth of thin films is first broadly presented, and then specific examples of film deposition are given. The examples drawn here are of films that have been prepared by metal plasma immersion implantation and deposition. The observed microstructures and functional properties of these films are discussed in terms of processing conditions.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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