and provide intriguing models for the study of parasite-host interactions. Both parasites possess the unique property of being able to transform the cells they infect; transforms T and B cells, whereas affects B cells and monocytes/macrophages. Parasitized cells do not require antigenic stimulation or exogenous growth factors and acquire the ability to proliferate continuously. In vivo, parasitized cells undergo clonal expansion and infiltrate both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues of the infected host. -induced transformation is entirely reversible and is accompanied by the expression of a wide range of different lymphokines and cytokines, some of which may contribute to proliferation or may enhance spread and survival of the parasitized cell in the host. The presence of the parasite in the host-cell cytoplasm modulates the state of activation of a number of signal transduction pathways. This, in turn, leads to the activation of transcription factors, including nuclear factor-κB, which appear to be essential for the survival of -transformed T cells.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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