The discovery that nitric oxide (NO) is produced by neurons and regulates synaptic activity has challenged the definition of a neurotransmitter. NO is not stored in synaptic vesicles and does not act at conventional receptors on the surface of adjacent neurons. The toxic gases carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (HS) are also produced by neurons and modulate synaptic activity. D-serine synthesis and release by astrocytes as an endogenous ligand for the “glycine” site of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors defy the concept that a neurotransmitter must be synthesized by neurons. We review the properties of these “atypical” neural modulators.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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