Current concepts in heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy are reviewed. Methods to improve the sensitivity and the efficiency of data collection include constant time, compression through the overlap of chemical shift evolution and dephasing and rephasing periods, and dual or time-shared evolution. Two classes of three-dimensional and fourdimensional triple-resonance experiments applied to proteins are considered. The first class correlates 1H, 15N, and 13C signals of the protein backbone. The second class correlates both backbone and side-chain signals. Application of triple resonance to RNA is also discussed. Heteronuclear cross polarization (HCP) is considered as an alternative to INEPT transfer, and its application to nucleic acids is presented. Finally, two methods of employing pulsed field gradients (PFGs) are reviewed.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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