NMR has emerged as an important tool for studies of protein folding because of the unique structural insights it can provide into many aspects of the folding process. Applications include measurements of kinetic folding events and structural characterization of folding intermediates, partly folded states, and unfolded states. Kinetic information on a time scale of milliseconds or longer can be obtained by real-time NMR experiments and by quench-flow hydrogen-exchange pulse labeling. Although NMR cannot provide direct information on the very rapid processes occurring during the earliest stages of protein folding, studies of isolated peptide fragments provide insights into likely protein folding initiation events. Multidimensional NMR techniques are providing new information on the structure and dynamics of protein folding intermediates and both partly folded and unfolded states.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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