This review provides a historical context for our understanding of the hydration shell surrounding halide ions and illustrates how the cluster systems can be used, in combination with theory, to elucidate the behavior of water molecules in direct contact with the anion. We discuss how vibrational predissociation spectroscopy, carried out with weakly bound argon atoms, has been employed to deduce the morphology of the small water networks attached to anions in the primary steps of hydration. We emphasize the importance of charge-transfer in the binary interaction, and discuss how this process affects the structures of the larger networks. Finally, we survey how the negatively charged water clusters (HO) are providing a molecular-level perspective on how diffuse excess electrons interact with the water networks.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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