Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy has been performed for more than 70 years in various guises, but recently its potential to help solve in detail problems in the photoionization dynamics and intramolecular dynamics of gas-phase molecules has been recognized. One key development has been the design of experiments in appropriate geometries to extract information that pertains to the molecular frame, another has been the development of imaging spectrometers, and a third is the use of ultrafast lasers to cause photoionization. In this review, which is aimed at experimentalists, simple expressions for photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in various experimental geometries are given and their applications explained.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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