1932

Abstract

We use a comparative approach to examine some of the physiological traits that make flight possible. Comparisons of related fliers and runners suggest that fliers generally have higher aerobic metabolic capacities than runners but that the difference is highly dependent on the taxa studied. The high metabolic rates of fliers relative to runners, especially in insects, are correlated with high locomotory muscle cycle frequencies and low efficiences of conversion of metabolic power to mechanical power. We examine some factors that produce variation in flight respiration and energetics. Air temperature strongly affects the flight metabolic rate of some insects and birds. Flight speed interacts with flier mass, so that small fliers tend to exhibit a Jshaped power curve and larger fliers a U-shaped power curve. As body size increases, mass-specific aerobic flight metabolism decreases in most studies, but mass-specific power output is constant or increases, leading to an increase in efficiency with size. Intraspecific studies have revealed specific genetically based effects on flight metabolism and power output and multiple ecological correlates of flight capabilities.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.physiol.62.1.179
2000-03-01
2024-06-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.physiol.62.1.179
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.physiol.62.1.179
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error