This review surveys a range of approaches using plasmid DNA encoding the 165-amino-acid isoform of vascular endothelial growth factor () to therapeutically modulate micro- or macrovascular endothelial cells, focusing on strategies to augment postnatal collateral circulation in arterial insufficiency or to accelerate re-endothelialization after balloon angioplasty to prevent restenosis. We focus on intra-arterial and intramuscular/intramyocardial gene transfer of the gene, the options that have been most thoroughly studied to date in patients. We review developmental and postnatal significance of the endothelial-cell-specific mitogen VEGF that has stimulated these studies and present limitations of current knowledge as well as challenges for the future.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error