1932

Abstract

Low oxygen (O) levels are a naturally occurring feature of embryonic development, adult physiology, and diseases such as those of the cardiovascular system. Although many responses to O deprivation are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), researchers are finding a growing number of HIF-independent pathways that promote O conformance and hypoxia tolerance. Here, we describe HIF-independent responses and how they impact cardiovascular tissue homeostasis.

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/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.physiol.70.113006.100526
2008-03-17
2024-06-13
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  • Article Type: Review Article
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