1932

Abstract

It is accepted that most fungal avirulence genes encode virulence factors that are called effectors. Most fungal effectors are secreted, cysteine-rich proteins, and a role in virulence has been shown for a few of them, including Avr2 and Avr4 of , which inhibit plant cysteine proteases and protect chitin in fungal cell walls against plant chitinases, respectively. In resistant plants, effectors are directly or indirectly recognized by cognate resistance proteins that reside either inside the plant cell or on plasma membranes. Several secreted effectors function inside the host cell, but the uptake mechanism is not yet known. Variation observed among fungal effectors shows two types of selection that appear to relate to whether they interact directly or indirectly with their cognate resistance proteins. Direct interactions seem to favor point mutations in effector genes, leading to amino acid substitutions, whereas indirect interactions seem to favor jettison of effector genes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.phyto.112408.132637
2009-09-08
2024-06-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.phyto.112408.132637
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.phyto.112408.132637
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error