In small-scale, subsistence agriculture in the tropics and the subtropics, traditional farming practices have evolved that provide a sustainable means of reducing the incidence and damage caused by pests including nematodes. Other newer, cultural and low-input practices can also be successfully introduced in small-scale farming. In sustainable and subsistence farming systems, nematodes and some other pests can be managed by integrating different farming practices into four strategies: preventing the introduction and spread of nematodes; using direct, nonchemical, cultural and physical control methods; encouraging naturally occurring biological control agents; and maintaining or enhancing the biodiversity inherent in multiple cropping and multiple cultivar traditional farming systems to increase the available resistance or tolerance to nematodes.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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