Infection structures of phytopathogenic fungi are modified hyphae specialized for the invasion of plant tissues. Initial events are adhesion to the cuticle and directed growth of the germ tube on the plant surface. At the site of penetration, appressoria are often formed that may have melanized walls and develop high turgor pressure to support the penetration process. The penetration hypha accumulates components of the cytoskeleton in the tip and secretes a variety of cell wall–degrading enzymes in a highly regulated fashion in order to penetrate the cuticle and the plant cell wall. This article reviews recent papers on the cytology, physiology, and molecular biology of the penetration process.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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