1932

Abstract

I relate my becoming a phytopathologist and my very satisfying growth into and beyond IPM to holistic plant health, and puzzle over paradigms that have prevented our accepting the overwhelming logic of () seeking defensible disease-loss data to justify funding and guide research and management priorities, () managing genetic diversity to retard pathogen development, () conserving genetic diversity in situ, and () educating and training general practitioner plant doctors. These multidisciplinary health care professionals are key to overcoming sources of stress that cause major world crops to yield only 15–20% of their genetic potential, on average. Thus, plant doctors give hope for approaching attainable yield and feeding a hungry world—if, simultaneously, human population growth is reduced. The plant health movement has the potential to effect the greatest change in world agriculture since the Green Revolution, and the DPH/M to become plant agriculture's most important single degree program.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.phyto.36.1.1
1998-09-01
2024-06-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/phyto/36/1/annurev.phyto.36.1.1.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.phyto.36.1.1&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Agrios GN. 1997. Plant Pathology. New York: Academic. 4th ed [Google Scholar]
  2. Baker KF. et al. 1963. Preface.. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 1:v–vi [Google Scholar]
  3. Boehner P, Moser I, Waldren R, Shearman R. 1997. Advanced degrees in agronomy: value perceptions from the North Central Region of the United States.. J. Nat. Resour. Life Sci. Educ. 26:170–76 [Google Scholar]
  4. Boyer JS. 1982. Plant productivity and environment.. Science 218:443–48 [Google Scholar]
  5. Boyer JS. 1987. Water and plant productivity. In Water and Water Policy in World Food Supplies, ed. WR Jordan 233–239 College Station: Texas A&M Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  6. Bradshaw DE. 1996. New pathways: an educational proposal for IPM/ICM practitioners.. Presented at Natl. IPM Symp., 3rd, 27–29 Feb. Washington, DC
  7. Bradshaw DE, Marquart DJ. 1990. New age professionals for a new agricultural age.. Agrichem. Age May:24–25 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bradshaw DE, Marquart DJ. 1990. America needs Doctors of Plant Health: A proposal to establish and educate a new profession.. Unpubl. NAICC White Pap 21 pp.
  9. Browning JA. 1973. Oats: a continental control program. In Breeding Plants for Disease Resistance: Concepts and Applications, ed. RR Nelson 155–80 University Park, PA: Penn. State Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  10. Browning JA. 1974. Relevance of knowledge about natural ecosystems to development of pest management programs for agroecosystems.. Proc. Am. Phytopathol. Soc. 1:191–99 [Google Scholar]
  11. Browning JA. 1981. The agro-ecosystem —natural ecosystem dichotomy and its impact on phytopathological concepts. In Pests, Pathogens and Vegetation, ed. JM Thresh 159–72 Boston: Pitman [Google Scholar]
  12. Browning JA. 1983. Whither plant pathology? Whither plant health?. Plant Dis. 67:575–77 [Google Scholar]
  13. Browning JA. 1983. Goal for plant health in The Age of Plants: a national plant health system.. See Ref. 38 45–57
  14. Browning JA. 1988. Current thinking on the use of diversity to buffer small grains against highly epidemic and variable foliar pathogens: problems and future prospects. In Breeding Strategies for Resistance to the Rusts of Wheat, ed. NW Simmonds, S Rajaram 76–90 Mexico, DF: CIM-MYT [Google Scholar]
  15. Browning JA. 1991. Conserving crop plant-pathogen coevolutionary processes in situ. In Biodiversity: Culture, Conservation, and Ecodevelopment, ed. ML Oldfield, JB Alcorn 59–85 Boulder: Westview [Google Scholar]
  16. Browning JA, Frey KJ. 1969. Multiline cultivars as a means of disease control.. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 7:355–82 [Google Scholar]
  17. Browning JA, Frey KJ. 1981. The multiline concept in theory and practice. In Strategies for the Control of Cereal Disease, ed. JF Jenkyn, RT Plumb 37–46 Oxford: Blackwell Sci [Google Scholar]
  18. Browning JA, Simons MD, Frey KJ, Murphy HC. 1969. Regional deployment for conservation of oat crown-rust resistance genes. In Disease Consequences of Intensive and Extensive Culture of Field Crops, ed. JA Browning 49–56 Ames: Iowa Agric. Home Econ. Exp. Stn. Spec. Rep. 64 [Google Scholar]
  19. Clinton HR. 1996. It Takes a Village. New York: Touchstone [Google Scholar]
  20. Cook RJ. 1987. Pathogens as constraints to crop productivity.. See Ref. 5 229–32
  21. Cook RJ, Veseth RJ. 1991. Wheat Health Management. St. Paul, MN: APS [Google Scholar]
  22. Czembor HJ, Gacek ES. 1996. The use of cultivar and species mixtures to control diseases and for yield improvement in cereals in Poland. In Integrated Control of Cereal Mildews and Rusts: Towards Coordination of Research across Europe, ed. E Limpert, MR Finckh, MS Wolfe 177–84 Zurich: Kappel am Albis [Google Scholar]
  23. Daily GC. ed 1997. Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Washington, DC: Island [Google Scholar]
  24. Dinoor A, Eshed N. 1984. The role and importance of pathogens in natural plant communities.. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 22:443–66 [Google Scholar]
  25. Dubin HJ, Wolfe MS. 1994. Comparative behavior of three wheat cultivars and their mixture in India, Nepal and Pakistan.. Field Crops Res. 39:71–83 [Google Scholar]
  26. Ferguson J. 1990. Plant health Ph.D.—1995?. Ag. Consult June22
  27. Flavin C. 1997. The legacy of Rio. In State of the World 1997. ed. L Starke 1–22 New York: Norton [Google Scholar]
  28. Fox SL, Brown PD, Chong J. 1997. Inheritance of crown rust resistance in four accessions of Avena sterilis L.. Crop Sci. 37:342–45 [Google Scholar]
  29. Frey KJ. 1983. Genes from wild relatives for improving plants. In Crop Improvement Research, ed. TC Yap, KM Graham, J Sukaimi 1–20 Bangi, Selangor, Malays.: SABARO [Google Scholar]
  30. Frey KJ, Browning JA, Simons MD. 1977. Management systems for host genes to control disease loss.. In The Genetic Basis of Epidemics in Agriculture, ed. PR Day Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 287:255–74 [Google Scholar]
  31. Frey KJ, Simons MD, Michel LJ, Murphy P, Browning JA. 1988. Registration of ‘Webster’ oat.. Crop Sci. 28:374–75 [Google Scholar]
  32. Galbraith JK. 1967. The New Industrial State. Boston: Houghton Mifflin [Google Scholar]
  33. Horsfall JG. 1959. A look to the future—the status of plant pathology in biology and agriculture. In Plant Pathology: Problems and Progress 1908–1958. ed. CS Holton, GW Fischer, RW Fulton, H Hart, SEA McCallan 63–70 Madison: Univ. Wisc. Press [Google Scholar]
  34. Jensen NF. 1952. Intravarietal diversification in oat breeding.. Agron. J. 44:30–34 [Google Scholar]
  35. Johnson T. 1961. Man-guided evolution in plant rusts.. Science 133:357–62 [Google Scholar]
  36. Kendrick JB Jr. 1984. The doctor of plant health.. Calif. Agric., Sept.:2 [Google Scholar]
  37. Knott DR. 1972. Using race-specific resistance to manage the evolution of plant pathogens.. J. Environ. Qual. 1:227–31 [Google Scholar]
  38. Kommendahl T, Williams PH. eds 1983. Challenging Problems in Plant Health. St. Paul, MN: APS [Google Scholar]
  39. Kuhn TS. 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press [Google Scholar]
  40. Lockwood JL. 1985. Doctor of Plant Health degree and international programs: the Council acts.. Plant Dis. 69:547 [Google Scholar]
  41. Main CE, Gurtz SK. eds 1989. 1988 Estimates of Crop Losses in North Carolina due to Plant Diseases and Nematodes. Dep. Plant Pathol. Spec. Publ. 8, Raleigh: NC State Univ [Google Scholar]
  42. Mann C. 1997. Reseeding the Green Revolution.. Science 277:1038–43 [Google Scholar]
  43. Marshall D. 1989. National and international breeding programs and deployment of plant germplasm: new solutions or new problems? In Spatial Components of Plant Disease Epidemics, ed. MJ Jeger 182–203 Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall [Google Scholar]
  44. Mayer J. 1985. Preventing famine.. Science 227:707 [Google Scholar]
  45. Merrill W. 1979. The doctor of plant medicine.. Int. Congr. Plant Prot. Proc. Symp. I, Plant Prot. Fundam. Asp., 9th,385–87 [Google Scholar]
  46. Merrill W. 1983. Education in plant pathology: problems and challenges ahead.. See Ref. 38 516–24
  47. Miller RJ, Clifford DG. 1985. The National IPM Program.. In CIPM—Integrated Pest Management on Major Agricultural Systems, ed. RE Frisbie, PL Adkisson 729–39 College Station Texas Agric. Exp. Stn. MP-1616
  48. Moreno -RG, Castillo -ZJ. 1990. The Variety Colombia: a variety of coffee with resistance to rust (Hemileia vastatrix Berk. & Br.).. Cent. Nac. Invest. Cafe, Cenicafé, Chinchiná, Colombia. Tech. Bull. 9
  49. Mundt CC. 1994. Use of host genetic diversity to control cereal diseases: implications for rice blast. In Rice Blast Disease, ed. RS Zeigler, SA Leong, PS Teng 293–308 Wallingford, UK: CAB Int [Google Scholar]
  50. Oerke E-C, Dehne H-W, Schonbeck F, Weber A. 1994. Crop Production and Crop Protection: Estimated Losses in Major Food and Cash Crops. Amsterdam: Elsevier [Google Scholar]
  51. Priestley RH. 1981. Choice and deployment of resistant cultivars for cereal disease control.. See Ref. 17 65–72
  52. Ruan ES. 1991. Evolution of a crop practitioner's black bag.. Ag. Consult. March:8–9 [Google Scholar]
  53. Segal A, Manisterski J, Fischbeck G, Wahl I. 1980. How plant populations defend themselves in natural ecosystems. In Plant Disease; An Advanced Treatise. Vol. 5. How Plants Defend Themselves, ed. JG Horsfall, EB Cowling 75–102 New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  54. Stakman EC. 1964. Opportunity and obligation in plant pathology.. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 2:1–12 [Google Scholar]
  55. Stowell LJ, Amador J, Barnett OW, Cook RJ, Mathre D. et al. 1998. Certification and the American Phytopathology Society.. Letter to the Editor Plant Dis. 82: In press [Google Scholar]
  56. Tammen JF, Wood FA. 1977. Education for the practitioner. In Plant Disease; An Advanced Treatise. Vol. I. How Disease is Managed, ed. JG Horsfall, EB Cowling 393–410 New York: Academic [Google Scholar]
  57. Tanksley SD, McCouch SR. 1997. Seed banks and molecular maps: unlocking genetic potential from the wild.. Science 277:1063–66 [Google Scholar]
  58. Thomason IJ. 1985. The plant health practitioner: What is it?. Address AAIE Meet., Santa Barbara, 5 Feb
  59. Wahl I, Anikster Y, Manisterski J, Segal A. 1984. Evolution at the center of origin. In The Cereal Rusts. Vol. I. Origins, Specificity, Structure, and Physiology, ed. WR Bushnell, AP Roelfs 39–77 Orlando: Academic [Google Scholar]
  60. Way MJ. 1987. Biological constraints: the importance of pests.. See Ref. 5 241–49
  61. Whetzel HH. 1911. The local plant doctor.. Trans. Mass. Hortic. Soc. Pt I:27–40 [Google Scholar]
  62. Wolfe MS. 1985. The current status and prospects of multiline cultivars and variety mixtures for disease resistance.. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 23:251–73 [Google Scholar]
  63. Wolfe MS. 1992. Barley diseases: maintaining the value of our varieties. In Barley Genetics VI, ed. L Munck 21055–67 Copenhagen: Munksgaard [Google Scholar]
  64. Wolfe MS. 1993. Can the strategic use of disease resistant hosts protect their inherent durability? In Durability of Disease Resistance, ed. T Jacobs, JE Parlevliet 83–96 Dordrecht: Kluwer [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.phyto.36.1.1
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev.phyto.36.1.1
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error