Electoral coordination occurs at two main levels: () within individual electoral districts, where competitors coordinate entry and citizens coordinate votes; and () across districts, as competitors from different districts ally to form regional or national parties. We know a fair amount about district-level electoral coordination for single-tier electoral systems. In particular, when political actors are primarily concerned with the current election and have good information about the relative chances of potential competitors, two different + 1 rules apply in an -seat district. First, the number of competitors entering a given race tends to be no more than + 1; second, when more than + 1 competitors do enter a race, votes tend to concentrate on at most + 1 of them. We know much less about cross-district coordination, in which potentially separate local party systems merge to form a national party system. This essay focuses on the latter, relatively neglected topic.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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