1932

Abstract

The advent of electrochemical affinity assays and sensors evolved from pioneering efforts in the 1970s to broaden the field of analytes accessible to the selective and sensitive performance of electrochemical detection. The foundation of electrochemical affinity assays/sensors is the specific capture of an analyte by an affinity element and the subsequent transduction of this event into a measurable signal. This review briefly covers the early development of affinity assays and then focuses on advances in the past decade. During this time, progress on electroactive labels, including the use of nanoparticles, quantum dots, organic and organometallic redox compounds, and enzymes with amplification schemes, has led to significant improvements in sensitivity. The emergence of nanomaterials along with microfabrication and microfluidics technology enabled research pathways that couple the ease of use of electrochemical detection for the development of devices that are more user friendly, disposable, and employable, such as lab-on-a-chip, paper, and wearable sensors.

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2021-07-27
2024-06-25
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