Research at the interface between nanoscience and biology could yield breakthroughs in fundamental science and lead to revolutionary technologies. In this review, we focus on the interfaces between nanoelectronics and biology. First, we discuss nanoscale field effect transistors (nanoFETs) as probes to study cellular systems; specifically, we describe the development of nanoFETs that are comparable in size to biological nanostructures involved in communication through synthesized nanowires. Second, we review current progress in multiplexed extracellular sensing using planar nanoFET arrays. Third, we describe the designs and implementation of three distinct nanoFETs used to perform the first intracellular electrical recording from single cells. Fourth, we present recent progress in merging electronic and biological systems at the three-dimensional tissue level by use of macro-porous nanoelectronic scaffolds. Finally, we discuss future developments in this research area, unique challenges and opportunities, and the tremendous impact these nanoFET-based technologies might have on biological and medical sciences.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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