1932

Abstract

This review focuses on the fabrication techniques and operational components of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). Being low-cost, user-friendly, fast, and simple, μPADs have seen explosive growth in the literature in the last decade. Many different materials and technologies have been employed to fabricate μPADs for various applications, including those that employ patterning, the creation of physical boundaries, and three-dimensional structures. In addition to fabrication techniques, flow control and other operational components in μPADs are of great interest. These components enable μPADs to control flow rates, direct flow paths via valves, sequentially deliver reagents automatically, and display test results, all of which will make μPADs more suitable for point-of-care applications.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anchem-071015-041714
2016-06-12
2024-04-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/anchem/9/1/annurev-anchem-071015-041714.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anchem-071015-041714&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Clerc O, Greub G. 1.  2010. Routine use of point-of-care tests: usefulness and application in clinical microbiology. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 16:1054–61 [Google Scholar]
  2. Yetisen AK, Akram MS, Lowe CR. 2.  2013. Paper-based microfluidic point-of-care diagnostic devices. Lab Chip 13:2210–51 [Google Scholar]
  3. Posthuma-Trumpie GA, Korf J, van Amerongen A. 3.  2009. Lateral flow (immuno) assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 393:569–82 [Google Scholar]
  4. Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Butte MJ, Whitesides GM. 4.  2007. Patterned paper as a platform for inexpensive, low volume, portable bioassays. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 46:1318–20 [Google Scholar]
  5. Abe K, Suzuki K, Citterio D. 5.  2008. Inkjet-printed microfluidic multianalyte chemical sensing paper. Anal. Chem. 80:6928–34 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bruzewicz DA, Reches M, Whitesides GM. 6.  2008. Low-cost printing of poly (dimethylsiloxane) barriers to define microchannels in paper. Anal. Chem. 80:3387–92 [Google Scholar]
  7. Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Wiley BJ, Gupta M, Whitesides GM. 7.  2008. FLASH: a rapid method for prototyping paper-based microfluidic devices. Lab Chip 8:2146–50 [Google Scholar]
  8. Dungchai W, Chailapakul O, Henry CS. 8.  2011. A low-cost, simple, and rapid fabrication method for paper-based microfluidics using wax screen-printing. Analyst 136:77–82 [Google Scholar]
  9. Määttänen A, Fors D, Wang S, Valtakari D, Ihalainen P, Peltonen J. 9.  2011. Paper-based planar reaction arrays for printed diagnostics. Sens. Actuators B 160:1404–12 [Google Scholar]
  10. Dornelas KL, Dossi N, Piccin E. 10.  2015. A simple method for patterning poly (dimethylsiloxane) barriers in paper using contact-printing with low-cost rubber stamps. Anal. Chem. Acta 858:82–90 [Google Scholar]
  11. Carrilho E, Martinez AW, Whitesides GM. 11.  2009. Understanding wax printing: a simple micropatterning process for paper-based microfluidics. Anal. Chem. 81:7091–95 [Google Scholar]
  12. Lu Y, Shi W, Jiang L, Qin J, Lin B. 12.  2009. Rapid prototyping of paper-based microfluidics with wax for low-cost, portable bioassay. Electrophoresis 30:1497–500 [Google Scholar]
  13. Songjaroen T, Dungchai W, Chailapakul O, Laiwattanapaisal W. 13.  2011. Novel, simple and low-cost alternative method for fabrication of paper-based microfluidics by wax dipping. Talanta 85:2587–93 [Google Scholar]
  14. de Tarso Garcia P, Cardoso TMG, Garcia CD, Carrilho E, Coltro WKT. 14.  2014. A handheld stamping process to fabricate microfluidic paper-based analytical devices with chemically modified surface for clinical assays. RSC Adv. 4:37637–44 [Google Scholar]
  15. Weng CH, Chen MY, Shen CH, Yang RJ. 15.  2014. Colored wax-printed timers for two-dimensional and three-dimensional assays on paper-based devices. Biomicrofluidics 8:066502 [Google Scholar]
  16. Zhang Y, Zhou C, Nie J, Le S, Qin Q. 16.  et al. 2014. Equipment-free quantitative measurement for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices fabricated using the principles of movable-type printing. Anal. Chem. 86:2005–12 [Google Scholar]
  17. Nie J, Zhang Y, Lin L, Zhou C, Li S. 17.  et al. 2012. Low-cost fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices by one-step plotting. Anal. Chem. 84:6331–35 [Google Scholar]
  18. Curto VF, Lopez-Ruiz N, Capitan-Vallvey LF, Palma AJ, Benito-Lopez F, Diamond D. 18.  2013. Fast prototyping of paper-based microfluidic devices by contact stamping using indelible ink. RSC Adv. 3:18811–16 [Google Scholar]
  19. Maejima K, Tomikawa S, Suzuki K, Citterio D. 19.  2013. Inkjet printing: an integrated and green chemical approach to microfluidic paper-based analytical devices. RSC Adv. 3:9258–63 [Google Scholar]
  20. He Q, Ma C, Hu X, Chen H. 20.  2013. Method for fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices by alkylsilane self-assembling and UV/O3-patterning. Anal. Chem. 85:1327–31 [Google Scholar]
  21. Glavan AC, Martinez RV, Maxwell EJ, Subramaniam AB, Nunes RM. 21.  et al. 2013. Rapid fabrication of pressure-driven open-channel microfluidic devices in omniphobic RF paper. Lab Chip 13:2922–30 [Google Scholar]
  22. Cai L, Wang Y, Wu Y, Xu C, Zhong M. 22.  et al. 2014. Fabrication of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device by silanization of filter cellulose using a paper mask for glucose assay. Analyst 139:4593–98 [Google Scholar]
  23. Cai L, Xu C, Lin S, Luo J, Wu M, Yang F. 23.  2014. A simple paper-based sensor fabricated by selective wet etching of silanized filter paper using a paper mask. Biomicrofluidics 8:056504 [Google Scholar]
  24. Abe K, Kotera K, Suzuki K, Citterio D. 24.  2010. Inkjet-printed paperfluidic immuno-chemical sensing device. Anal. BioAnal. Chem. 398:885–93 [Google Scholar]
  25. Olkkonen J, Lehtinen K, Erho T. 25.  2010. Flexographically printed fluidic structures in paper. Anal. Chem. 82:10246–50 [Google Scholar]
  26. Sones CL, Katis IN, He PJW, Mills B, Namiq MF. 26.  et al. 2014. Laser-induced photo-polymerisation for creation of paper-based fluidic devices. Lab Chip 14:4567–74 [Google Scholar]
  27. Sameenoi Y, Nongkai PN, Nouanthavong S, Henry CS, Nacapricha D. 27.  2014. One-step polymer screen-printing for microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) fabrication. Analyst 139:6580–88 [Google Scholar]
  28. Songok J, Tuominen M, Teisala H, Haapanen J, Mäkelä J. 28.  et al. 2014. Paper-based microfluidics: fabrication technique and dynamics of capillary-driven surface flow. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6:20060–66 [Google Scholar]
  29. Nurak T, Praphairaksit N, Chailapakul O. 29.  2013. Fabrication of paper-based devices by lacquer spraying method for the determination of nickel (II) ion in waste water. Talanta 114:291–96 [Google Scholar]
  30. Sousa MP, Mano JF. 30.  2013. Patterned superhydrophobic paper for microfluidic devices obtained by writing and printing. Cellulose 20:2185–90 [Google Scholar]
  31. Li X, Tian J, Nguyen T, Shen W. 31.  2008. Paper-based microfluidic devices by plasma treatment. Anal. Chem. 80:9131–34 [Google Scholar]
  32. Li X, Tian J, Garnier G, Shen W. 32.  2010. Fabrication of paper-based microfluidic sensors by printing. Colloids Surf. B 76:564–70 [Google Scholar]
  33. Cate DM, Adkins JA, Mettakoonpitak J, Henry CS. 33.  2014. Recent developments in paper-based microfluidic devices. Anal. Chem. 87:19–41 [Google Scholar]
  34. Chen B, Kwong P, Gupta M. 34.  2013. Patterned fluoropolymer barriers for containment of organic solvents within paper-based microfluidic devices. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5:12701–7 [Google Scholar]
  35. Wang J, Monton MRN, Zhang X, Filipe CD, Pelton R, Brennan JD. 35.  2014. Hydrophobic sol–gel channel patterning strategies for paper-based microfluidics. Lab Chip 14:691–95 [Google Scholar]
  36. Elsharkawy M, Schutzius TM, Megaridis CM. 36.  2014. Inkjet patterned superhydrophobic paper for open-air surface microfluidic devices. Lab Chip 14:1168–75 [Google Scholar]
  37. Mitchell HT, Noxon IC, Chaplan CA, Carlton SJ, Liu CH. 37.  et al. 2015. Reagent pencils: a new technique for solvent-free deposition of reagents onto paper-based microfluidic devices. Lab Chip 15:2213–20 [Google Scholar]
  38. Kwong P, Gupta M. 38.  2012. Vapor phase deposition of functional polymers onto paper-based microfluidic devices for advanced unit operations. Anal. Chem. 84:10129–35 [Google Scholar]
  39. Demirel G, Babur E. 39.  2014. Vapor-phase deposition of polymers as a simple and versatile technique to generate paper-based microfluidic platforms for bioassay applications. Analyst 139:2326–31 [Google Scholar]
  40. Yu L, Shi ZZ. 40.  2015. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices fabricated by low-cost photolithography and embossing of Parafilm®. Lab Chip 15:1642–45 [Google Scholar]
  41. Katis IN, Holloway JA, Madsen J, Faust SN, Garbis SD. 41.  et al. 2014. Paper-based colorimetric enzyme linked immunosorbent assay fabricated by laser induced forward transfer. Biomicrofluidics 8:036502 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kao PK, Hsu CC. 42.  2014. Battery-operated, portable, and flexible air microplasma generation device for fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices on demand. Anal. Chem. 86:8757–62 [Google Scholar]
  43. Obeso CG, Sousa MP, Song W, Rodriguez-Pérez MA, Bhushan B, Mano JF. 43.  2013. Modification of paper using polyhydroxybutyrate to obtain biomimetic superhydrophobic substrates. Colloids Surf. A 416:51–55 [Google Scholar]
  44. Chitnis G, Ding Z, Chang CL, Savran CA, Ziaie B. 44.  2011. Laser-treated hydrophobic paper: an inexpensive microfluidic platform. Lab Chip 11:1161–65 [Google Scholar]
  45. Fenton EM, Mascarenas MR, López GP, Sibbett SS. 45.  2008. Multiplex lateral-flow test strips fabricated by two-dimensional shaping. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 1:124–29 [Google Scholar]
  46. Fu E, Liang T, Spicar-Mihalic P, Houghtaling J, Ramachandran S, Yager P. 46.  2012. Two-dimensional paper network format that enables simple multistep assays for use in low-resource settings in the context of malaria antigen detection. Anal. Chem. 84:4574–79 [Google Scholar]
  47. Nie J, Liang Y, Zhang Y, Le S, Li D, Zhang S. 47.  2013. One-step patterning of hollow microstructures in paper by laser cutting to create microfluidic analytical devices. Analyst 138:671–76 [Google Scholar]
  48. Mu X, Zhang L, Chang S, Cui W, Zheng Z. 48.  2014. Multiplex microfluidic paper-based immunoassay for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection. Anal. Chem. 86:5338–44 [Google Scholar]
  49. Cassano CL, Fan ZH. 49.  2013. Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD): fabrication, characterization, and assays. Microfluid. Nanofluid. 15:173–81 [Google Scholar]
  50. Liu W, Cassano CL, Xu X, Fan ZH. 50.  2013. Laminated paper-based analytical devices (LPAD) with origami-enabled chemiluminescence immunoassay for cotinine detection in mouse serum. Anal. Chem. 85:10270–76 [Google Scholar]
  51. Renault C, Li X, Fosdick SE, Crooks RM. 51.  2013. Hollow-channel paper analytical devices. Anal. Chem. 85:7976–79 [Google Scholar]
  52. Giokas DL, Tsogas GZ, Vlessidis AG. 52.  2014. Programming fluid transport in paper-based microfluidic devices using razor-crafted open channels. Anal. Chem. 86:6202–7 [Google Scholar]
  53. Lewis GG, DiTucci MJ, Phillips ST. 53.  2012. Quantifying analytes in paper-based microfluidic devices without using external electronic readers. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 124:12879–82 [Google Scholar]
  54. Scida K, Li B, Ellington AD, Crooks RM. 54.  2013. DNA detection using origami paper analytical devices. Anal. Chem. 85:9713–20 [Google Scholar]
  55. Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Whitesides GM. 55.  2008. Three-dimensional microfluidic devices fabricated in layered paper and tape. PNAS 105:19606–11 [Google Scholar]
  56. Thuo MM, Martinez RV, Lan WJ, Liu X, Barber J. 56.  et al. 2014. Fabrication of low-cost paper-based microfluidic devices by embossing or cut-and-stack methods. Chem. Mater. 26:4230–37 [Google Scholar]
  57. Lewis GG, DiTucci MJ, Baker MS, Phillips ST. 57.  2012. High throughput method for prototyping three-dimensional, paper-based microfluidic devices. Lab Chip 12:2630–33 [Google Scholar]
  58. Schilling KM, Jauregui D, Martinez AW. 58.  2013. Paper and toner three-dimensional fluidic devices: programming fluid flow to improve point-of-care diagnostics. Lab Chip 13:628–31 [Google Scholar]
  59. Kalish B, Tsutsui H. 59.  2014. Patterned adhesive enables construction of nonplanar three-dimensional paper microfluidic circuits. Lab Chip 14:4354–61 [Google Scholar]
  60. Liu H, Crooks RM. 60.  2011. Three-dimensional paper microfluidic devices assembled using the principles of origami. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133:17564–66 [Google Scholar]
  61. Sechi D, Greer B, Johnson J, Hashemi N. 61.  2013. Three-dimensional paper-based microfluidic device for assays of protein and glucose in urine. Anal. Chem. 85:10733–37 [Google Scholar]
  62. Govindarajan AV, Ramachandran S, Vigil GD, Yager P, Böhringer KF. 62.  2012. A low cost point-of-care viscous sample preparation device for molecular diagnosis in the developing world; an example of microfluidic origami. Lab Chip 12:174–81 [Google Scholar]
  63. Liu H, Xiang Y, Lu Y, Crooks RM. 63.  2012. Aptamer-based origami paper analytical device for electrochemical detection of adenosine. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 124:7031–34 [Google Scholar]
  64. Zang D, Ge L, Yan M, Song X, Yu J. 64.  2012. Electrochemical immunoassay on a 3D microfluidic paper-based device. Chem. Commun. 48:4683–85 [Google Scholar]
  65. Lu J, Ge S, Ge L, Yan M, Yu J. 65.  2012. Electrochemical DNA sensor based on three-dimensional folding paper device for specific and sensitive point-of-care testing. Electrochim. Acta 80:334–41 [Google Scholar]
  66. Ge L, Yan J, Song X, Yan M, Ge S, Yu J. 66.  2012. Three-dimensional paper-based electrochemiluminescence immunodevice for multiplexed measurement of biomarkers and point-of-care testing. Biomaterials 33:1024–31 [Google Scholar]
  67. Yan J, Ge L, Song X, Yan M, Ge S, Yu J. 67.  2012. Paper-based electrochemiluminescent 3D immunodevice for lab-on-paper, specific, and sensitive point-of-care testing. Chem. Eur. J. 18:4938–45 [Google Scholar]
  68. Yan J, Yan M, Ge L, Yu J, Ge S, Huang J. 68.  2013. A microfluidic origami electrochemiluminescence aptamer–device based on a porous Au-paper electrode and a phenyleneethynylene derivative. Chem. Commun. 49:1383–85 [Google Scholar]
  69. Li X, Liu X. 69.  2014. Fabrication of three-dimensional microfluidic channels in a single layer of cellulose paper. Microfluid. Nanofluid. 16:819–27 [Google Scholar]
  70. Renault C, Koehne J, Ricco AJ, Crooks RM. 70.  2014. Three-dimensional wax patterning of paper fluidic devices. Langmuir 30:7030–36 [Google Scholar]
  71. Jeong SG, Lee SH, Choi CH, Kim J, Lee CS. 71.  2015. Toward instrument-free digital measurements: a three-dimensional microfluidic device fabricated in a single sheet of paper by double-sided printing and lamination. Lab Chip 15:1188–94 [Google Scholar]
  72. Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Whitesides GM, Carrilho E. 72.  2009. Diagnostics for the developing world: microfluidic paper-based analytical devices. Anal. Chem. 82:3–10 [Google Scholar]
  73. Schilling KM, Lepore AL, Kurian JA, Martinez AW. 73.  2012. Fully enclosed microfluidic paper-based analytical devices. Anal. Chem. 84:1579–85 [Google Scholar]
  74. Mentele MM, Cunningham J, Koehler K, Volckens J, Henry CS. 74.  2012. Microfluidic paper-based analytical device for particulate metals. Anal. Chem. 84:4474–80 [Google Scholar]
  75. Yu J, Wang S, Ge L, Ge S. 75.  2011. A novel chemiluminescence paper microfluidic biosensor based on enzymatic reaction for uric acid determination. Biosens. Bioelectron. 26:3284–89 [Google Scholar]
  76. Jayawardane BM, Wongwilai W, Grudpan K, Kolev SD, Heaven MW. 76.  et al. 2014. Evaluation and application of a paper-based device for the determination of reactive phosphate in soil solution. J. Environ. Qual. 43:1081–85 [Google Scholar]
  77. Liu XY, Cheng CM, Martinez AW, Mirica KA, Li XJ. 77.  et al. 2011. A portable microfluidic paper-based device for ELISA. IEEE 24th Int. Conf. Micro Electro Mech. Syst. (MEMS)75–78 New York: IEEE [Google Scholar]
  78. Cuartero M, Crespo GA, Bakker E. 78.  2015. Paper based thin layer coulometric sensor for halide determination. Anal. Chem. 87:1981–90 [Google Scholar]
  79. Fu E, Ramsey SA, Kauffman P, Lutz B, Yager P. 79.  2011. Transport in two-dimensional paper networks. Microfluid. Nanofluid. 10:29–35 [Google Scholar]
  80. Kauffman P, Fu E, Lutz B, Yager P. 80.  2010. Visualization and measurement of flow in two-dimensional paper networks. Lab Chip 10:2614–17 [Google Scholar]
  81. Lahr RH, Wallace GC, Vikesland PJ. 81.  2015. Raman characterization of nanoparticle transport in microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7:9139–46 [Google Scholar]
  82. Elizalde E, Urteaga R, Berli CL. 82.  2015. Rational design of capillary-driven flows for paper-based microfluidics. Lab Chip 15:2173–80 [Google Scholar]
  83. Fu E, Lutz B, Kauffman P, Yager P. 83.  2010. Controlled reagent transport in disposable 2D paper networks. Lab Chip 10:918–20 [Google Scholar]
  84. Jahanshahi-Anbuhi S, Chavan P, Sicard C, Leung V, Hossain SZ. 84.  et al. 2012. Creating fast flow channels in paper fluidic devices to control timing of sequential reactions. Lab Chip 12:5079–85 [Google Scholar]
  85. da Silva ET, Santhiago M, de Souza FR. 85.  et al. 2015. Triboelectric effect as a new strategy for sealing and controlling the flow in paper-based devices. Lab Chip 15:1651–55 [Google Scholar]
  86. Toley BJ, McKenzie B, Liang T, Buser JR, Yager P, Fu E. 86.  2013. Tunable-delay shunts for paper microfluidic devices. Anal. Chem. 85:11545–52 [Google Scholar]
  87. Toley BJ, Wang JA, Gupta M, Buser JR, Lafleur LK. 87.  et al. 2015. A versatile valving toolkit for automating fluidic operations in paper microfluidic devices. Lab Chip 15:1432–44 [Google Scholar]
  88. Lutz B, Liang T, Fu E, Ramachandran S, Kauffman P, Yager P. 88.  2013. Dissolvable fluidic time delays for programming multi-step assays in instrument-free paper diagnostics. Lab Chip 13:2840–47 [Google Scholar]
  89. Noh H, Phillips ST. 89.  2010. Metering the capillary-driven flow of fluids in paper-based microfluidic devices. Anal. Chem. 82:4181–87 [Google Scholar]
  90. Noh H, Phillips ST. 90.  2010. Fluidic timers for time-dependent, point-of-care assays on paper. Anal. Chem. 82:8071–78 [Google Scholar]
  91. Martinez AW, Phillips ST, Nie Z, Cheng CM, Carrilho E. 91.  et al. 2010. Programmable diagnostic devices made from paper and tape. Lab Chip 10:2499–504 [Google Scholar]
  92. Chen H, Cogswell J, Anagnostopoulos C, Faghri M. 92.  2012. A fluidic diode, valves, and a sequential-loading circuit fabricated on layered paper. Lab Chip 12:2909–13 [Google Scholar]
  93. Gerbers R, Foellscher W, Chen H, Anagnostopoulos C, Faghri M. 93.  2014. A new paper-based platform technology for point-of-care diagnostics. Lab Chip 14:4042–49 [Google Scholar]
  94. Koo CK, He F, Nugen SR. 94.  2013. An inkjet-printed electrowetting valve for paper-fluidic sensors. Analyst 138:4998–5004 [Google Scholar]
  95. Houghtaling J, Liang T, Thiessen G, Fu E. 95.  2013. Dissolvable bridges for manipulating fluid volumes in paper networks. Anal. Chem. 85:11201–4 [Google Scholar]
  96. Li X, Zwanenburg P, Liu X. 96.  2013. Magnetic timing valves for fluid control in paper-based microfluidics. Lab Chip 13:2609–14 [Google Scholar]
  97. Lutz BR, Trinh P, Ball C, Fu E, Yager P. 97.  2011. Two-dimensional paper networks: programmable fluidic disconnects for multi-step processes in shaped paper. Lab Chip 11:4274–78 [Google Scholar]
  98. Apilux A, Ukita Y, Chikae M, Chailapakul O, Takamura Y. 98.  2013. Development of automated paper-based devices for sequential multistep sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using inkjet printing. Lab Chip 13:126–35 [Google Scholar]
  99. Fridley GE, Le H, Yager P. 99.  2014. Highly sensitive immunoassay based on controlled rehydration of patterned reagents in a 2-dimensional paper network. Anal. Chem. 86:6447–53 [Google Scholar]
  100. Fridley GE, Le HQ, Fu E, Yager P. 100.  2012. Controlled release of dry reagents in porous media for tunable temporal and spatial distribution upon rehydration. Lab Chip 12:4321–27 [Google Scholar]
  101. Niedl RR, Beta C. 101.  2015. Hydrogel-driven paper-based microfluidics. Lab Chip 15:2452–59 [Google Scholar]
  102. Liu H, Li X, Crooks RM. 102.  2013. Paper-based SlipPAD for high-throughput chemical sensing. Anal. Chem. 85:4263–67 [Google Scholar]
  103. Cunningham JC, Brenes NJ, Crooks RM. 103.  2014. Paper electrochemical device for detection of DNA and thrombin by target-induced conformational switching. Anal. Chem. 86:6166–70 [Google Scholar]
  104. Nie Z, Deiss F, Liu X, Akbulut O, Whitesides GM. 104.  2010. Integration of paper-based microfluidic devices with commercial electrochemical readers. Lab Chip 10:3163–69 [Google Scholar]
  105. Nie Z, Nijhuis CA, Gong J, Chen X, Kumachev A. 105.  et al. 2010. Electrochemical sensing in paper-based microfluidic devices. Lab Chip 10:477–83 [Google Scholar]
  106. Dungchai W, Chailapakul O, Henry CS. 106.  2009. Electrochemical detection for paper-based microfluidics. Anal. Chem. 81:5821–26 [Google Scholar]
  107. Zhang Y, Ge L, Ge S, Yan M, Yan J. 107.  et al. 2013. TiO2–graphene complex nanopaper for paper-based label-free photoelectrochemical immunoassay. Electrochim. Acta 112:620–28 [Google Scholar]
  108. Noiphung J, Songjaroen T, Dungchai W, Henry CS, Chailapakul O, Laiwattanapaisal W. 108.  2013. Electrochemical detection of glucose from whole blood using paper-based microfluidic devices. Anal. Chem. Acta 788:39–45 [Google Scholar]
  109. de Araujo WR, Paixão TRLC. 109.  2014. Fabrication of disposable electrochemical devices using silver ink and office paper. Analyst 139:2742–47 [Google Scholar]
  110. Shiroma LY, Santhiago M, Gobbi AL, Kubota LT. 110.  2012. Separation and electrochemical detection of paracetamol and 4-aminophenol in a paper-based microfluidic device. Anal. Chem. Acta 725:44–50 [Google Scholar]
  111. Santhiago M, Kubota LT. 111.  2013. A new approach for paper-based analytical devices with electrochemical detection based on graphite pencil electrodes. Sens. Actuators B 177:224–30 [Google Scholar]
  112. Santhiago M, Henry CS, Kubota LT. 112.  2014. Low cost, simple three dimensional electrochemical paper-based analytical device for determination of p-nitrophenol. Electrochem. Acta 130:771–77 [Google Scholar]
  113. da Silva ETSG, Miserere S, Kubota LT, Merkoçi A. 113.  2014. Simple on-plastic/paper inkjet-printed solid-state Ag/AgCl pseudoreference electrode. Anal. Chem. 86:10531–34 [Google Scholar]
  114. Dossi N, Toniolo R, Piccin E, Susmel S, Pizzariello A, Bontempelli G. 114.  2013. Pencil-drawn dual electrode detectors to discriminate between analytes comigrating on paper-based fluidic devices but undergoing electrochemical processes with different reversibility. Electroanalysis 25:2515–22 [Google Scholar]
  115. Yang H, Kong Q, Wang S, Xu J, Bian Z. 115.  et al. 2014. Hand-drawn&written pen-on-paper electrochemiluminescence immunodevice powered by rechargeable battery for low-cost point-of-care testing. Biosens. Bioelectron. 61:21–27 [Google Scholar]
  116. Chagas CLS, Costa Duarte L, Oliveira Lobo E Jr., Piccin E, Dossi N, Coltro WKT. 116.  2015. Hand drawing of pencil electrodes on paper platforms for contactless conductivity detection of inorganic cations in human tear samples using electrophoresis chips. Electrophoresis 36:1837–44 [Google Scholar]
  117. Dossi N, Toniolo R, Terzi F, Piccin E, Bontempelli G. 117.  2015. Simple pencil-drawn paper-based devices for one-spot electrochemical detection of electroactive species in oil samples. Electrophoresis 36:1830–6 [Google Scholar]
  118. Dossi N, Toniolo R, Impellizzieri F, Bontempelli G. 118.  2014. Doped pencil leads for drawing modified electrodes on paper-based electrochemical devices. J. Electroanal. Chem. 722:90–94 [Google Scholar]
  119. Dossi N, Toniolo R, Terzi F, Impellizzieri F, Bontempelli G. 119.  2014. Pencil leads doped with electrochemically deposited Ag and AgCl for drawing reference electrodes on paper-based electrochemical devices. Electrochem. Acta 146:518–24 [Google Scholar]
  120. Lu J, Liu S, Ge S, Yan M, Yu J, Hu X. 120.  2012. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on Au nanoparticles dotted carbon nanotube–graphene composite and functionalized mesoporous materials. Biosens. Bioelectron. 33:29–35 [Google Scholar]
  121. Liana DD, Raguse B, Wieczorek L, Baxter GR, Chuah K. 121.  et al. 2013. Sintered gold nanoparticles as an electrode material for paper-based electrochemical sensors. RSC Adv. 3:8683–91 [Google Scholar]
  122. Ge L, Wang S, Yu J, Li N, Ge S, Yan M. 122.  2013. Molecularly imprinted polymer grafted porous Au-paper electrode for an microfluidic electro-analytical origami device. Adv. Funct. Mater. 23:3115–23 [Google Scholar]
  123. Li W, Li L, Li M, Yu J, Ge S. 123.  et al. 2013. Development of a 3D origami multiplex electrochemical immunodevice using a nanoporous silver-paper electrode and metal ion functionalized nanoporous gold–chitosan. Chem. Commun. 49:9540–42 [Google Scholar]
  124. Li L, Xu J, Zheng X, Ma C. 124.  et al. 2014. Growth of gold-manganese oxide nanostructures on a 3D origami device for glucose-oxidase label based electrochemical immunosensor. Biosens. Bioelectron. 61:76–82 [Google Scholar]
  125. Ma C, Li W, Kong Q, Yang H, Bian Z. 125.  et al. 2015. 3D origami electrochemical immunodevice for sensitive point-of-care testing based on dual-signal amplification strategy. Biosen. Bioelectron. 63:7–13 [Google Scholar]
  126. Li L, Ma C, Kong Q, Li W, Zhang Y. 126.  et al. 2014. A 3D origami electrochemical immunodevice based on a Au@Pd alloy nanoparticle-paper electrode for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. J. Mater. Chem. B 2:6669–74 [Google Scholar]
  127. Yang J, Nam YG, Lee SK, Kim CS, Koo YM. 127.  et al. 2014. Paper-fluidic electrochemical biosensing platform with enzyme paper and enzymeless electrodes. Sens. Actuators B 203:44–53 [Google Scholar]
  128. Sun G, Zhang L, Zhang Y, Yang H, Ma C. 128.  et al. 2015. Multiplexed enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor based on ZnO nanorods modified reduced graphene oxide-paper electrode and silver deposition-induced signal amplification strategy. Biosen. Bioelectron. 71:30–36 [Google Scholar]
  129. Sun Y, He K, Zhang Z, Zhou A, Duan H. 129.  2015. Real-time electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide secretion in live cells by Pt nanoparticles decorated graphene–carbon nanotube hybrid paper electrode. Biosen. Bioelectron. 68:358–64 [Google Scholar]
  130. Sun Y, Fang Z, Wang C, Ariyawansha KRM, Zhou A, Duan H. 130.  2015. Sandwich-structured nanohybrid paper based on controllable growth of nanostructured MnO2 on ionic liquid functionalized graphene paper as a flexible supercapacitor electrode. Nanoscale 7:7790–801 [Google Scholar]
  131. Siegel AC, Phillips ST, Wiley BJ, Whitesides GM. 131.  2009. Thin, lightweight, foldable thermochromic displays on paper. Lab Chip 9:2775–81 [Google Scholar]
  132. Wei X, Tian T, Jia S, Zhu Z, Ma Y. 132.  et al. 2015. Target-responsive DNA hydrogel mediated “stop-flow” microfluidic paper-based analytic device for rapid, portable and visual detection of multiple targets. Anal. Chem. 87:4275–82 [Google Scholar]
  133. Chen YT, Yang JT. 133.  2015. Detection of an amphiphilic biosample in a paper microchannel based on length. Biomed. Microdevices 17:9954 [Google Scholar]
  134. Cate DM, Noblitt SD, Volckens J, Henry CS. 134.  2015. Multiplexed paper analytical device for quantification of metals using distance-based detection. Lab Chip 15:2808–18 [Google Scholar]
  135. Gong MM, Zhang P, MacDonald BD, Sinton D. 135.  2014. Nanoporous membranes enable concentration and transport in fully wet paper-based assays. Anal. Chem. 86:8090–97 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anchem-071015-041714
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anchem-071015-041714
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error