1932

Abstract

The earliest South African hominids (humans and their ancestral kin) belong to the genera , , and , with the oldest being a ca. 3.67 million-year-old nearly complete skeleton of (StW 573) from Sterkfontein Caves. This skeleton has provided, for the first time in almost a century of research, the full anatomy of an individual with indisputably associated skull and postcranial bones that give complete limb lengths. The three genera are also found in East Africa, but scholars have disagreed on the taxonomic assignment for some fossils owing to historical preconceptions. Here we focus on the South African representatives to help clarify these debates. The uncovering of the StW 573 skeleton in situ revealed significant clues concerning events that had affected it over time and demonstrated that the associated stalagmite flowstones cannot provide direct dating of the fossil, as they are infillings of voids caused by postdepositional collapse.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-091619-124837
2021-10-21
2024-06-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/anthro/50/1/annurev-anthro-091619-124837.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-091619-124837&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Andrews P. 2015. An Ape's View of Human Evolution Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Beaudet A, Clarke RJ, Bruxelles L, Carlson KJ, Crompton R et al. 2019a. The bony labyrinth of StW 573 (“Little Foot”): implications for early hominin evolution and paleobiology. J. Hum. Evol. 127:67–80
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Beaudet A, Clarke RJ, de Jager EJ, Bruxelles L, Carlson KJ et al. 2019b. The endocast of StW 573: (“Little Foot”) and hominin brain evolution. J. Hum. Evol. 126:112–23
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Beaudet A, Clarke RJ, Heaton JL, Pickering TR, Carlson KJ et al. 2020. The atlas of StW 573 and the late emergence of human-like head mobility and brain metabolism. Sci. Rep. 10:4285
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Berger LR, Clarke RJ. 1995. Eagle involvement in accumulation of the Taung child fauna. J. Hum. Evol. 29:275–99
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Berger LR, de Ruiter DJ, Churchill SE, Schmid P, Carlson KJ et al. 2010. Australopithecus sediba: a new Homo-like australopith from South Africa. Science 328:195–204
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Blumenschine RJ, Peters CR, Masao FT, Clarke RJ, Deino AL et al. 2003. Late Pliocene Homo and hominid land use from western Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Science 299:1217–21
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Braga J, Thackeray JF, Bruxelles L, Dumoncel J, Fourvel J-B. 2017. Stretching the time span of hominin evolution at Kromdraai (Gauteng, South Africa): recent discoveries. C. R. Palevol 16:58–70
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Brain CK. 1958. The Transvaal Ape-Man Bearing Cave Deposits Transvaal Mus. Mem. No. 11 Pretoria: Transvaal Mus.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Brain CK. 1981. The Hunters or the Hunted? An Introduction to African Cave Taphonomy Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Brain CK 1993. Swartkrans: A Cave's Chronicle of Early Man Pretoria, S. Afr.: Transvaal Mus.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Broom R. 1925a. On the newly discovered South African man-ape. Nat. Hist. 25:409–18
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Broom R. 1925b. Some notes on the Taungs skull. Nature 115:569–71
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Broom R. 1936. A new fossil anthropoid skull from South Africa. Nature 138:486–88
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Broom R. 1938. The Pleistocene anthropoid apes of South Africa. Nature 142:377–79
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Broom R, Robinson JT. 1949. A new type of fossil man. Nature 164:322–23
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Broom R, Robinson JT. 1950. Man contemporaneous with the Swartkrans ape-man. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 8:151–55
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Broom R, Robinson JT. 1952. Swartkrans Ape-Man, Paranthropus crassidens. Transvaal Mus. Mem. 6 Pretoria: Transvaal Mus.
  19. Broom R, Robinson JT, Schepers GWH. 1950. Sterkfontein Ape-Man, Plesianthropus Transvaal Mus. Mem. 4 Pretoria: Transvaal Mus.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Broom R, Schepers GWH. 1946. The South African Fossil Ape-Men, the Australopithecinae Transvaal Mus. Mem. 2 Pretoria: Transvaal Mus.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bruxelles L, Clarke RJ, Maire R, Ortega R, Stratford D 2014. Stratigraphic analysis of the Sterkfontein StW 573 Australopithecus skeleton and implications for its age. J. Hum. Evol. 70:36–48
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Bruxelles L, Stratford DJ, Maire R, Pickering TR, Heaton JL et al. 2019. A multiscale stratigraphic investigation of the context of StW 573 ‘Little Foot’ and Member 2, Sterkfontein Caves, South Africa. J. Hum. Evol. 133:78–98
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Carlson KJ, Green DJ, Jashashvili T, Pickering TR, Heaton JL et al. 2021. The pectoral girdle of StW 573 (‘Little Foot’) and its implications for shoulder evolution in the Hominina. J. Human Evol In press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2021.102983
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Clark JD. 1993. Stone artefact assemblages from Members 1–3, Swartkrans Cave. See Brain 1993.167–94
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Clarke R. 2013. Australopithecus from Sterkfontein Caves, South Africa. The Paleobiology of Australopithecus K Reed, J Fleagle, RE Leakey 105–23 Dordrecht, Neth.: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Clarke RJ. 1977a. A juvenile cranium and some adult teeth of early Homo from Swartkrans, Transvaal. S. Afr. J. Sci 73:46–49
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Clarke RJ. 1977b. The cranium of the Swartkrans Hominid, SK 847, and its relevance to human origins. PhD Thesis Univ. Witwatersrand Johannesburg:
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Clarke RJ. 1988. A new Australopithecus cranium from Sterkfontein and its bearing on the ancestry of Paranthropus. See Grine 1988 285–92
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Clarke RJ. 1990. Observations on some restored hominid specimens in the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. In From Apes to Angels: Essays in Anthropology in Honor of Phillip V. Tobias GH Sperber 135–51 New York: Wiley-Liss
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Clarke RJ 1994a. Advances in understanding the craniofacial anatomy of South African early hominids. Integrative Paths to the Past: Essays in Honor of F. Clark Howell RS Corruccini, RL Ciochon 205–22 Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Clarke RJ. 1994b. On some new interpretations of Sterkfontein stratigraphy. S. Afr. J. Sci. 90:211–14
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Clarke RJ. 1998. First ever discovery of a well-preserved skull and associated skeleton of Australopithecus. S. Afr. J. Sci. 94:460–63
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Clarke RJ. 1999. Discovery of complete arm and hand of the 3.3 million-year-old Australopithecus skeleton from Sterkfontein. S. Afr. J. Sci. 95:477–80
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Clarke RJ. 2002. Newly revealed information on the Sterkfontein Member 2 Australopithecus skeleton. S. Afr. J. Sci. 98:523–26
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Clarke RJ. 2008. Latest information on Sterkfontein's Australopithecus skeleton and a new look at Australopithecus. S. Afr. J. Sci. 104:443–49
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Clarke RJ. 2012. A Homo habilis maxilla and other newly-discovered hominid fossils from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. J. Hum. Evol 63:418–28
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Clarke RJ 2017. Homo habilis: the inside story. Proceedings of the II Meeting of African Prehistory M Sahnouni, S Semaw, JR Garaizar 25–51 Burgos, Spain: Cent. Nac. Investig. Evol. Hum.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Clarke RJ. 2019a. Australopithecus prometheus was validly named on MLD 1. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 170:479–81
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Clarke RJ. 2019b. Excavation, reconstruction and taphonomy of the StW 573 Australopithecus prometheus skeleton from Sterkfontein Caves, South Africa. J. Hum. Evol. 127:41–53
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Clarke RJ, Howell FC. 1972. Affinities of the Swartkrans 847 hominid cranium. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 37:319–36
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Clarke RJ, Howell FC, Brain CK. 1970. More evidence of an advanced hominid at Swartkrans. Nature 225:1219–22
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Clarke RJ, Kuman K. 2019. The skull of StW 573, a 3.67 Ma Australopithecus prometheus skeleton from Sterkfontein Caves, South Africa. J. Hum. Evol. 134:102634
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Clarke RJ, Tobias PV. 1995. Sterkfontein Member 2 foot bones of the oldest South African hominid. Science 269:521–24
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Dart RA. 1925. Australopithecus africanus: the man-ape of South Africa. Nature 115:195–99
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Dart RA. 1948a. The adolescent mandible of Australopithecus prometheus. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 6:391–411
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Dart RA. 1948b. The Makapansgat proto-human Australopithecus prometheus. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 6:259–84
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Dawson C, Woodward AS. 1913. On the discovery of a Palaeolithic human skull and mandible in a flint-bearing gravel overlying the Wealden (Hastings Beds) at Piltdown, Fletching (Sussex). J. Geol. Soc. 69:117–23
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Deloison Y. 2003. Fossil foot bone anatomy from South Africa between 2.4 and 3.5 MY old: interpretation in relation to the kind of locomotion. Biom. Hum. Anthropol 21:189–230 in French )
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Du Toit AL. 1948. Robert Broom Commemorative Volume Spec. Publ. Cape Town: R. Soc. S. Afr.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Ferguson WW. 1989. Reappraisal of the taxonomic status of the cranium Stw 53 from the Plio/Pleistocene of Sterkfontein, in South Africa. Primates 30:103–9
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Ferguson WW. 1995. A new species of the genus Homo (Primates: Hominidae) from the Plio/Pleistocene of Koobi Fora, in Kenya. Primates 36:69–89
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Field AS. 1999. An analytical and comparative study of the Earlier Stone Age archaeology of the Sterkfontein valley MSc Diss., Univ. Witwatersrand Johannesburg:
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Gibbon RJ, Pickering TR, Sutton MB, Heaton JL, Kuman K et al. 2014. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating of hominin-bearing Pleistocene cave deposits at Swartkrans, South Africa. Quat. Geochronol. 24:10–15
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Goodman M, Czelusniak J, Page SL, Meireles CM 2001. Where DNA sequences place Homo sapiens in a phylogenetic classification of primates. Humanity from African Naissance to Coming Millenia PV Tobias, MA Raath, J Moggi-Cecchi, GA Doyle 279–89 Florence/Johannesburg: Firenze Univ. Press/Wits Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Granger DE, Gibbon RJ, Kuman K, Clarke RJ, Bruxelles L, Caffee MW. 2015. New cosmogenic burial ages for Sterkfontein Member 2 Australopithecus and Member 5 Oldowan. Nature 522:85–88
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Grine F 1988. Evolutionary History of the “Robust” Australopithecines New York: Aldine de Gruyter
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Groves CP, Mazak V. 1975. An approach to the taxonomy of the Hominidae: Gracile Villafranchian hominids of Africa. Cas. Mineral. Geol. 20:225–46
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Haile-Selassie J, Melillo SM, Vazzana A, Benazzi S, Ryan TM. 2019. A 3.8-million-year-old hominin cranium from Woranso-Mille, Ethiopia. Nature 573:214–19
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Heaton JL. 2006. Taxonomy of the Sterkfontein fossil Cercopithecinae: The Papionini of Members 2 and 4 (Gauteng, South Africa) PhD Diss., Indiana Univ. Bloomington:
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Heaton JL, Pickering TR, Carlson KJ, Crompton RH, Jashashvili T et al. 2019. The long limb bones of the StW 573 Australopithecus skeleton from Sterkfontein Member 2: descriptions and proportions. J. Hum. Evol. 133:167–97
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Herries AIR, Martin JM, Leece AB, Adams JW, Boschia G et al. 2020. Contemporaneity of Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and early Homo erectus in South Africa. Science 368:eaaw7293
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Hughes AR, Tobias PV. 1977. A fossil skull probably of the genus Homo from Sterkfontein, Transvaal. Nature 265:310–12
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Johanson DC, Masao FT, Eck GG, White TD, Walter RC et al. 1987. New partial skeleton of Homo habilis from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Nature 327:205–9
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Johanson DC, White TD, Coppens Y. 1978. A new species of the genus Australopithecus (Primates: Hominidae) from the Pliocene of eastern Africa. Kirtlandia 28:21–14
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Keith A, Elliot Smith G, Smith Woodward A, Duckworth WLH 1925. The fossil anthropoid ape from Taungs. Nature 115:234–36
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Keyser AW. 2000a. New finds in South Africa. Natl. Geogr. 197:576–83
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Keyser AW. 2000b. The Drimolen skull: the most complete australopithecine cranium and mandible to date. S. Afr. J. Sci. 96:189–93
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Kibii JM, Clarke RJ. 2003. A reconstruction of the StW 431 Australopithecus pelvis based on newly discovered fragments. S. Afr. J. Sci. 99:225–26
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Kimbel WH, Rak Y. 2017. Australopithecus sediba and the emergence of Homo: questionable evidence from the cranium of the juvenile holotype MH 1. J. Hum. Evol. 107:94–106
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Kimbel WH, White TD. 1988. Variation, sexual dimorphism and the taxonomy of Australopithecus. See Grine 1988 175–92
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Kohl-Larsen L. 1943. Auf den Spuren des Vormenschen, Vol. 2 Stuttgart, Ger: Strecker und Schröder
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Kuman K. 1994a. The archaeology of Sterkfontein: past and present. J. Hum. Evol. 27:471–95
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Kuman K. 1994b. The archaeology of Sterkfontein: preliminary findings on site formation and cultural change. S. Afr. J. Sci. 90:215–19
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Kuman K 1996. The Oldowan industry from Sterkfontein: raw materials and core forms. Aspects of African Archaeology: Papers from the 10th Congress of the PanAfrican Association for Prehistory and Related Studies G Pwiti, R Soper 139–46 Harare: Univ. Zimb. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Kuman K 1998. The earliest South African industries. Early Human Behavior in Global Context: The Rise and Diversity of the Lower Palaeolithic Record M Petraglia, R Korisettar 151–86 London: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Kuman K, Clarke RJ. 2000. Stratigraphy, artefact industries and hominid associations for Sterkfontein, Member 5. J. Hum. Evol. 38:827–47
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Kuman K, Field A 2009. The Oldowan industry from Sterkfontein Caves, South Africa. The Cutting Edge: New Approaches to the Archaeology of Human Origins K Schick, N Toth 151–70 Gosport, IN: Stone Age Inst. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Kuman K, Field AS, Thackeray JF. 1997. Discovery of new artefacts at Kromdraai. S. Afr. J. Sci. 93:187–93
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Kuman K, Granger DE, Gibbon RJ, Pickering TR, Caruana M et al. 2021. A new absolute date from Swartkrans Cave for the oldest occurrences of Paranthropus robustus and Oldowan stone tools in South Africa. J. Hum. Evol. 156:103000 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2021.103000
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  80. Kuman K, Sutton MB, Pickering TR, Heaton JL. 2018. The Oldowan industry from Swartkrans Cave, South Africa, and its relevance for the African Oldowan. J. Hum. Evol. 123:52–69
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Leakey LSB. 1934. Adam's Ancestors. An Up-to-Date Outline of What Is Known About the Origin of Man London: Methuen
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Leakey LSB. 1959. A new fossil skull from Olduvai. Nature 184:491–93
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Leakey LSB. 1960. The origin of the genus Homo. The Evolution of Man: Man, Culture and Society. Evolution after Darwin, Vol. 2 S Tax 17–32 Chicago/London: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Leakey LSB. 1961. The Progress and Evolution of Man in Africa London: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Leakey LSB, Tobias PV, Napier JR. 1964. A new species of the genus Homo from Olduvai Gorge. Nature 202:7–9
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Leakey MD, Clarke RJ, Leakey LSB. 1971. New hominid skull from Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Nature 232:308–12
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Leakey REF. 1974. Further evidence of Lower Pleistocene hominids from East Rudolf, north Kenya; 1973. Nature 248:653–56
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Lockwood CA, Menter CG, Moggi-Cecchi J, Keyser AW. 2007. Extended male growth in a fossil hominin species. Science 318:1443–46
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Lockwood CA, Tobias PV. 1999. A large male cranium from Sterkfontein, South Africa, and the status of Australopithecus africanus. J. Hum. Evol. 36:637–85
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Martin JM, Leece AB, Neubauer S, Baker SE, Mongle CS et al. 2020. Drimolen cranium DNH 155 documents microevolution in an early hominin species. Nat. Ecol. Evol 5:38–45
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Moggi-Cecchi J, Grine FE, Tobias PV. 2006. Early hominid dental remains from Members 4 and 5 of the Sterkfontein formation (1966–1996 excavations): catalogue, individual associations, morphological descriptions and initial metrical analysis. J. Hum. Evol. 50:239–328
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Partridge TC, Granger DE, Caffee MW, Clarke RJ. 2003. Lower Pliocene hominid remains from Sterkfontein. Science 300:607–12
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Pickering TR, Clarke RJ, Heaton JL. 2004. The context of Stw 573, an early hominid skull and skeleton from Sterkfontein Member 2: taphonomy and paleoenvironment. J. Hum. Evol. 46:277–95
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Pickering TR, Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Egeland CP, Brain CK. 2005. The contribution of limb bone fracture patterns to reconstructing early hominid behaviour at Swartkrans Cave (South Africa): archaeological application of a new analytical method. Int. J. Osteoarchaeol. 15:247–60
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Pickering TR, Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Egeland CP, Brain CK 2007. Carcass foraging by early hominids at Swartkrans Cave (South Africa): a new investigation of the zooarchaeology and taphonomy of Member 3. Breathing Life into Fossils: Taphonomic Studies in Honor of C.K. (Bob) Brain TR Pickering, K Schick, N Toth 233–53 Bloomington, Indiana: Stone Age Inst. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Pickering TR, Egeland CP, Domínguez-Rodrigo M, Brain CK, Schnell AG. 2008. Testing the “shift in the balance of power” hypothesis at Swartkrans, South Africa: hominid cave use and subsistence behavior in the Early Pleistocene. J. Anthropol. Archaeol. 27:30–45
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Pickering TR, Heaton JL, Clarke RJ, Sutton MB, Brain CK, Kuman K. 2012. New hominid fossils from Member 1 of the Swartkrans Formation, South Africa. J. Hum. Evol. 62:618–28
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Pickering TR, Heaton JL, Sutton MB, Clarke RJ, Kuman K et al. 2016. New early Pleistocene hominin teeth from the Swartkrans Formation, South Africa. J. Hum. Evol. 100:1–15
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Robinson JT. 1953a. Telanthropus and its phylogenetic significance. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 11:445–501
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Robinson JT. 1953b. The nature of Telanthropus capensis. Nature 171:33
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Robinson JT. 1954. The genera and species of the Australopithecinae. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 12:181–200
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Robinson JT. 1961. The australopithecines and their bearing on the origin of man and of stone tool making. S. Afr. J. Sci. 57:3–12
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Robinson JT 1962. The origin and adaptive radiation of the australopithecines. Evolution und Hominisation G Kurth 120–40 Stuttgart, Ger: Gustav Fischer
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Robinson JT. 1972. Early Hominid Posture and Locomotion Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Schwartz J, Tattersall I. 2005. The Human Fossil Record, Vol. 4: Craniodental Morphology of Early Hominids (Genera Australopithecus, Paranthropus, Orrorin), and Overview New York: Wiley-Liss
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Stringer C, Andrews P. 2005. The Complete World of Human Evolution London: Thames and Hudson
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Sutton MB, Pickering TR, Pickering R, Brain CK, Clarke RJ et al. 2009. Newly discovered fossil- and artifact-bearing deposits, uranium-series ages, and Plio-Pleistocene hominids at Swartkrans Cave, South Africa. J. Hum. Evol. 57:688–96
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Tattersall I. 1986. Species recognition in human paleontology. J. Hum. Evol. 15:165–75
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Tattersall I 1996. Paleoanthropology and preconception. Contemporary Issues in Human Evolution WE Meikle, FC Howell, NG Jablonski 47–54 Calif. Acad. Sci. Mem. 21 San Francisco: Calif. Acad. Sci.
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Tattersall I. 2015. The Strange Case of the Rickety Cossack and Other Cautionary Tales from Human Evolution New York: Palgrave MacMillan
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Tobias PV. 1967. Olduvai Gorge, Vol. 2. The Cranium of Australopithecus (Zinjanthropus) boisei Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Tobias PV. 1980. “Australopithecus afarensis” and A. africanus: critique and an alternative hypothesis. Palaeontol. Afr 23:1–17
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Tobias PV. 1991. Olduvai Gorge, Vol. 4. The Skulls, Endocasts and teeth of Homo habilis Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Tobias PV. 2013. Into the Past: A Memoir Johannesburg: Wits Univ. Press, 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Tobias PV, Hughes AR. 1969. The new Witwatersrand University excavation at Sterkfontein. S. Afr. Archaeol. Bull. 24:158–69
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Toussaint M, Macho GA, Tobias PV, Partridge TC, Hughes AR. 2003. The third partial skeleton of a late Pliocene hominid (StW 431) from Sterkfontein, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 99:215–23
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Vrba ES. 1982. Biostratigraphy and chronology, based particularly on Bovidae, of southern hominid-associated assemblages: Makapansgat, Sterkfontein, Taung, Kromdraai, Swartkrans; also Elandsfontein (Saldanha), Broken Hill (now Kabwe) and Cave of Hearths. L'Homo erectus et la Place de Tautavel parmi les Hominidés Fossiles: 1er Congrès International de Paléontologie Humaine MA de Lumley 707–52 Nice, Fr: Inst. Paleontol. Hum.
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Vrba ES. 1985. Early hominids in southern Africa: updated observations on chronological and ecological background. Hominid Evolution. Past, Present and Future PV Tobias 195–200 New York: Alan R. Liss
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Walker A 1981. The Koobi Fora hominids and their bearing on the origins of the genus Homo. Homo erectus: Papers in Honor of Davidson Black BA Sigmon, JS Cybulski 193–215 Toronto: Univ. Tor. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Walker J, Cliff RA, Latham AG. 2006. U-Pb isotopic age of the StW 573 hominid from Sterkfontein, South Africa. Science 314:1592–94
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Ward CV, Plavcan JM, Manthi FK. 2010. Anterior dental evolution in the Australopithecus anamensis-afarensis lineage. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 365:3333–44
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Weiner JS. 1955. The Piltdown Forgery London: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  123. White TD. 2002. Earliest hominids. The Primate Fossil Record WC Hartwig 407–17 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-091619-124837
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-anthro-091619-124837
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error