1932

Abstract

There are limited therapeutic options for final treatment of end-stage heart failure. Among them, implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH) is an acceptable strategy when suitable donors are not available. TAH development began in the 1930s, followed by a dramatic evolution of the actuation mechanisms operating the mechanical pumps. Nevertheless, the performance of TAHs has not yet been optimized, mainly because of the low biocompatibility of the blood-contacting surfaces. Low hemocompatibility, calcification, and sensitivity to infections seriously affect the success of TAHs. These unsolved issues have led to the withdrawal of many prototypes during preclinical phases of testing. This review offers a comprehensive analysis of the pathophysiological events that may occur in the materials that compose TAHs developed to date. In addition, this review illustrates bioengineering strategies to prevent these events and describes the most significant steps toward the achievement of a fully biocompatible TAH.

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2019-06-04
2024-04-15
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