1932

Abstract

In addition to their early-recognized functions in host defense and the clearance of apoptotic cell debris, macrophages play vital roles in tissue development, homeostasis, and repair. If misregulated, they steer the progression of many inflammatory diseases. Much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying macrophage signaling, transcriptomics, and proteomics, under physiological and pathological conditions. Yet, the detailed mechanisms that tune circulating monocytes/macrophages and tissue-resident macrophage polarization, differentiation, specification, and their functional plasticity remain elusive. We review how physical factors affect macrophage phenotype and function, including how they hunt for particles and pathogens, as well as the implications for phagocytosis, autophagy, and polarization from proinflammatory to prohealing phenotype. We further discuss how this knowledge can be harnessed in regenerative medicine and for the design of new drugs and immune-modulatory drug delivery systems, biomaterials, and tissue scaffolds.

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2019-06-04
2024-06-15
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