Biomolecular condensates are highly versatile membraneless organelles involved in a plethora of cellular processes. Recent years have witnessed growing evidence of the interaction of these droplets with membrane-bound cellular structures. Condensates’ adhesion to membranes can cause their mutual molding and regulation, and their interaction is of fundamental relevance to intracellular organization and communication, organelle remodeling, embryogenesis, and phagocytosis. In this article, we review advances in the understanding of membrane–condensate interactions, with a focus on in vitro models. These minimal systems allow the precise characterization and tuning of the material properties of both membranes and condensates and provide a workbench for visualizing the resulting morphologies and quantifying the interactions. These interactions can give rise to diverse biologically relevant phenomena, such as molecular-level restructuring of the membrane, nano- to microscale ruffling of the condensate–membrane interface, and coupling of the protein and lipid phases.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 53 is May 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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