Mitochondria are essential organelles performing important cellular functions ranging from bioenergetics and metabolism to apoptotic signaling and immune responses. They are highly dynamic at different structural and functional levels. Mitochondria have been shown to constantly undergo fusion and fission processes and dynamically interact with other organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, and lipid droplets. The field of mitochondrial dynamics has evolved hand in hand with technological achievements including advanced fluorescence super-resolution nanoscopy. Dynamic remodeling of the cristae membrane within individual mitochondria, discovered very recently, opens up a further exciting layer of mitochondrial dynamics. In this review, we discuss mitochondrial dynamics at the following levels: () within an individual mitochondrion, () among mitochondria, and () between mitochondria and other organelles. Although the three tiers of mitochondrial dynamics have in the past been classified in a hierarchical manner, they are functionally connected and must act in a coordinated manner to maintain cellular functions and thus prevent various human diseases.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 53 is May 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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