The translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins represents the culmination of gene expression. Recent technological advances have revolutionized our ability to investigate this process with unprecedented precision, enabling the study of translation at the single-molecule level in real time within live cells. In this review, we provide an overview of single-mRNA translation reporters. We focus on the core technology, as well as the rapid development of complementary probes, tags, and accessories that enable the visualization and quantification of a wide array of translation dynamics. We then highlight notable studies that have utilized these reporters in model systems to address key biological questions. The high spatiotemporal resolution of these studies is shedding light on previously unseen phenomena, uncovering the full heterogeneity and complexity of translational regulation.

Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 53 is May 2024. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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