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Abstract

Synthetic biology seeks to probe fundamental aspects of biological form and function by construction [i.e., (re)synthesis] rather than deconstruction (analysis). In this sense, biological sciences now follow the lead given by the chemical sciences. Synthesis can complement analytic studies but also allows novel approaches to answering fundamental biological questions and opens up vast opportunities for the exploitation of biological processes to provide solutions for global problems. In this review, we explore aspects of this synthesis paradigm as applied to the chemistry and function of nucleic acids in biological systems and beyond, specifically, in genome resynthesis, synthetic genetics (i.e., the expansion of the genetic alphabet, of the genetic code, and of the chemical make-up of genetic systems), and the elaboration of orthogonal biosystems and components.

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2023-05-09
2024-04-24
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