1932

Abstract

Diffusion is a pervasive process present in a broad spectrum of cellular reactions. Its mathematical description has existed for nearly two centuries and permits the construction of simple rules for evaluating the characteristic timescales of diffusive processes and some of their determinants. Although the term diffusion originally referred to random motions in three-dimensional (3D) media, several biological diffusion processes in lower dimensions have been reported. One-dimensional (1D) diffusions have been reported, for example, for translocations of various proteins along DNA or protein (e.g., microtubule) lattices and translation of helical peptides along the coiled-coil interface. Two-dimensional (2D) diffusion has been shown for dynamics of proteins along membranes. The microscopic mechanisms of these 1–3D diffusions may vary significantly depending on the nature of the diffusing molecules, the substrate, and the interactions between them. In this review, we highlight some key examples of 1–3D biomolecular diffusion processes and illustrate the roles that electrostatic interactions and intrinsic disorder may play in modulating these processes.

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2023-05-09
2024-04-18
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