1932

Abstract

Paleoanthropologists have long speculated about the role of environmental change in shaping human evolution in Africa. In recent years, drill cores of late Neogene lacustrine sedimentary rocks have yielded valuable high-resolution records of climatic and ecosystem change. Eastern African Rift sediments (primarily lake beds) provide an extraordinary range of data in close proximity to important fossil hominin and archaeological sites, allowing critical study of hypotheses that connect environmental history and hominin evolution. We review recent drill-core studies spanning the Plio–Pleistocene boundary (an interval of hominin diversification, including the earliest members of our genus and the oldest stone tools), and the Mid–Upper Pleistocene (spanning the origin of in Africa and our early technological and dispersal history). Proposed drilling of Africa's oldest lakes promises to extend such records back to the late Miocene.

  • ▪  High-resolution paleoenvironmental records are critical for understanding external drivers of human evolution.
  • ▪  African lake basin drill cores play a critical role in enhancing hominin paleoenvironmental records given their continuity and proximity to key paleoanthropological sites.
  • ▪  The oldest African lakes have the potential to reveal a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context for the entire late Neogene history of hominin evolution.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-earth-031920-081947
2022-05-31
2024-04-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/earth/50/1/annurev-earth-031920-081947.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-earth-031920-081947&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Ambrose S 1998. Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of modern humans. J. Hum. Evol. 34:623–51
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Antón SC, Potts R, Aiello LC. 2014. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective. Science 345:61921236828
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Behrensmeyer AK. 2006. Climate change and human evolution. Science 311:476–78
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Behrensmeyer AK, Potts R, Deino A. 2018. The Oltulelei Formation of the southern Kenyan Rift Valley: a chronicle of rapid landscape transformation over the last 500 k.y. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 130:9/101474–92
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bereiter B, Eggleston S, Schmitt J, Nehrbass-Ahles C, Stocker TF et al. 2015. Revision of the EPICA Dome C CO2 record from 800 to 600 kyr before present. Geophys. Res. Lett. 42:542–49
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Billingsley A, Reinthal P, Dettman DL, Kingston JD, Deino AL et al. 2021. δ13C records from fish fossils as paleo-indicators of ecosystem response to lake levels in the Plio-Pleistocene lakes of Tugen Hills, Kenya. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 570:109320
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Blome MW, Cohen AS, Tryon CA, Brooks AS, Russell J. 2012. The environmental context for the origins of modern human diversity: a synthesis of regional variability in African climate 150,000–30,000 years ago. J. Hum. Evol. 62:563–92
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bonnefille R. 2010. Cenozoic vegetation, climate changes and hominid evolution in tropical Africa. Glob. Planet. Change 72:390–411
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bonnefille R, Potts R, Chalié F, Jolly D, Peyron O. 2004. High-resolution vegetation and climate change associated with Pliocene Australopithecus afarensis. PNAS 101:12125–29
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Braun DR, Aldeias V, Archer W, Arrowsmith JR, Barakif N et al. 2019. Earliest known Oldowan artifacts at >2.58 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Ethiopia, highlight early technological diversity. PNAS 116:11712–17
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Brooks AS, Yellen JE, Potts R, Behrensmeyer AK, Deino AL et al. 2018. Long-distance stone transport and pigment use in the earliest Middle Stone Age. Science 360:90–94
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Brown FH, Haileab B, McDougall I. 2006. Sequence of tuffs between the KBS Tuff and the Chari Tuff in the Turkana Basin, Kenya and Ethiopia. J. Geol. Soc. 163:185–204
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brown FH, Sarna-Wojcicki AM, Meyer CE, Haileab B. 1992. Correlation of Pliocene and Pleistocene tephra layers between the Turkana Basin of East Africa and the Gulf of Aden. Quat. Int. 13–14:55–67
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Caley T, Extier T, Collins JA, Schefuß E, Dupont L et al. 2018. A two-million-year-long hydroclimatic context for hominin evolution in southeastern Africa. Nature 560:76–79
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Campisano CJ, Cohen AS, Arrowsmith JR, Asrat A, Behrensmeyer AK et al. 2017. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: acquiring high-resolution paleoclimate records from the East African Rift System and their implications for understanding the environmental context of hominin evolution. Paleoanthropology 2017:1–43
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Cerling TE, Wynn JG, Andanje SA, Bird MI, Korir DK et al. 2011. Woody cover and hominin environments in the past 6 million years. Nature 476:51–56
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cohen A, Campisano C, Arrowsmith R, Asrat A, Behrensmeyer AK et al. 2016. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project: inferring the environmental context of human evolution from eastern African rift lake deposits. Sci. Drill. 21:1–16
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cohen AS, Ashley GM, Potts R, Behrensmeyer AK, Feibel C, Quade J. 2006. Paleoclimate and human evolution workshop. Eos 87:161–62
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cohen AS, Salzburger W. 2016. Scientific drilling at Lake Tanganyika, Africa: a transformative record for understanding evolution in isolation and the biological history of the African continent, University of Basel, 6–8 June 2016. Sci. Drill. 22:43–48
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cohen AS, Stone JR, Beuning KR, Park LE, Reinthal PN et al. 2007. Ecological consequences of early Late Pleistocene megadroughts in tropical Africa. PNAS 104:16422–27
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Colcord DE, Shilling AM, Freeman KH, Njau JK, Stanistreet IG et al. 2019. Aquatic biomarkers record Pleistocene environmental changes at Paleolake Olduvai, Tanzania. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 524:250–61
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Collard M, Wood BA. 2000. How reliable are human phylogenetic hypotheses?. PNAS 97:5003–6
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Dart R. 1925. Australopithecus africanus: the man-ape of South Africa. Nature 115:195–99
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Darwin C. 1871. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex London: John Murray
  25. Deino AL, Behrensmeyer AK, Brooks AS, Yellen JE, Sharp WD, Potts R. 2018. Chronology of the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in eastern Africa. Science 360:638495–98
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Deino AL, Dommain R, Keller CB, Potts R, Behrensmeyer AK et al. 2019. Chronostratigraphic model of a high-resolution drill core record of the past million years from the Koora Plain, south Kenya Rift: overcoming the difficulties of variable sedimentation rate and hiatuses. Quat. Sci. Rev. 215:213–31
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Deino AL, Heil CJ, King J, McHenry LJ, Stanistreet IG et al. 2020. Chronostratigraphy and age modeling of Pleistocene drill cores from the Olduvai Basin, Tanzania (Olduvai Gorge Coring Project). Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 571:109990
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Deino AL, Kingston JD, Glen JM, Edgar RK, Hill A 2006. Precessional forcing of lacustrine sedimentation in the late Cenozoic Chemeron Basin, Central Kenya Rift. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 247:41–60
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Deino AL, Sier MJ, Garello D, Keller B, Kingston J et al. 2021. Chronostratigraphy of the Baringo-Tugen-Barsemoi (HSPDP-BTB13-1A) core—40Ar/39Ar dating, magnetostratigraphy, tephrostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and Bayesian age modeling. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 570:109519
    [Google Scholar]
  30. deMenocal PB. 1995. Plio-Pleistocene African climate. Science 270:53–59
    [Google Scholar]
  31. deMenocal PB. 2004. African climate change and faunal evolution during the Pliocene–Pleistocene. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 220:3–24
    [Google Scholar]
  32. deMenocal PB, Brown FH, Agusti J, Rook L, Andrews P 1999. Pliocene tephra correlations between East African hominid localities, the Gulf of Aden, and the Arabian Sea. Hominid Evolution and Climatic Change in Europe J Agusti, L Rook, P Andrews 23–54 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Dobson A. 2009. Food-web structure and ecosystem services: insights from the Serengeti. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 364:1665–82
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Donges JF, Donner RV, Trauth M, Marwan N, Schnellnhuber HJ, Kurths J. 2011. Nonlinear detection of paleoclimate-variability transitions possibly related to human evolution. PNAS 108:20422–27
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Dowsett HJ, Haywood AM, Valdees PJ, Robinson MM, Lunt DJ et al. 2011. Sea surface temperatures of the mid-Piacenzian Warm Period: a comparison of PRISM3 and HadCM3. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 309:83–91
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Duesing W, Kaboth-Bahr S, Asrat A, Cohen AS, Foerster V et al. 2021. Changes in the cyclicity and variability of the eastern African paleoclimate over the last 620 kyrs. Quat. Sci. Rev. 273:107219
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Faith JT, Du A, Behrensmeyer AK, Davies B, Patterson DB et al. 2021. Rethinking the ecological drivers of hominin evolution. Trends Ecol. Evol. 36:797–807
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Feakins SJ, Levin NE, Liddy HM, Sieracki A, Eglinton TI, Bonnefille R. 2013. Northeast African vegetation change over 12 m.y. Geology 41:295–98
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Foerster V, Deocampo DM, Asrat A, Günter C, Junginger A et al. 2018. Towards an understanding of climate proxy formation in the Chew Bahir basin, southern Ethiopian Rift. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 501:111–23
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Foerster V, Junginger A, Langkamp O, Gebru T, Asrat A et al. 2012. Climatic change recorded in the sediments of the Chew Bahir basin, southern Ethiopia, during the last 45,000 years. Quat. Int. 274:25–37
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Foley RA. 1994. Speciation, extinction and climatic change in hominid evolution. J. Hum. Evol. 26:275–89
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Foley RA 2017. Evolutionary ecology of fossil hominids. Evolutionary Ecology and Human Behavior EA Smith, B Winterhalder 131–64 Chicago: Aldine de Gruyter
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Garello D. 2019. Tephrostratigraphy of Pliocene drill cores from Kenya and Ethiopia, and Pleistocene exposures in the Ledi-Geraru Research Project area, Ethiopia: geological context for the evolution of Australopithecus and Homo PhD Diss. Ariz. State Univ. Tempe:
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Goetz C, Hillaire-Marcel C. 1992. U-series disequilibria in early diagenetic minerals from Lake Magadi sediments: dating potential. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56:1331–41
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Grootes PM, Stuiver M. 1997. Oxygen 18/16 variability in Greenland snow and ice with 10−3- to 105-year time resolution. J. Geophys. Res. 102:C1226455–70
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Grove M. 2014. Evolution and dispersal under climatic instability: a simple evolutionary algorithm. Adapt. Behav. 22:235–54
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Grove M, Lamb HF, Roberts H, Davies S, Marshall M, Bates R, Huws D. 2015. Climatic variability, plasticity, and dispersal: a case study from Lake Tana, Ethiopia. J. Hum. Evol. 87:32–47
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Haile-Selassie Y, Melillo SM, Su DF. 2016. The Pliocene hominin diversity conundrum: Do more fossils mean less clarity?. PNAS 113:236364–71
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Harrison T 2011. Hominins. Paleontology and Geology of Laetoli: Human Evolution in Context, Vol. 2 T Harrison 141–88 Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Hempson GP, Archibald S, Bond WJ 2015a. A continent-wide assessment of the form and intensity of large mammal herbivory in Africa. Science 350:1056–61
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Hempson GP, Archibald S, Bond WJ, Ellis RP, Grant CC et al. 2015b. Ecology of grazing lawns in Africa. Biol. Rev. 90:979–94
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Hublin JJ, Abdelouahed BN, Bailey SE, Freidline SE, Neubauer S et al. 2017. New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens. Nature 546:289–92
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Ivory SJ, Blome MW, King JW, McGlue MM, Cole JE, Cohen AS 2016. Environmental change explains cichlid adaptive radiation at Lake Malawi over the past 1.2 million years. PNAS 113:11895–900
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Ivory SJ, Lézine A, Vincens A, Cohen AS. 2018. Waxing and waning of forests: late Quaternary biogeography of southeast Africa. Glob. Change Biol. 24:2939–51
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Jackson LJ, Stone JR, Cohen AS, Yost CL. 2015. High resolution paleoecological records from Lake Malawi show no significant cooling associated with the Mount Toba supereruption at ca. 75 ka. Geology 43:9823–26
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Kaboth-Bahr S, Gosling WD, Vogelsang R, Bahr A, Scerri EM et al. 2021. Paleo-ENSO influence on African environments and early modern humans. PNAS 118:23e2018277118
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Kimbel W 2015. The species and diversity of australopiths. Handbook of Paleoanthropology, Vol. 3 W Henke, I Tattersall 2071–105 New York: Springer. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Kingston JD, Deino AL, Edgar RK, Hill A 2007. Astronomically forced climate change in the Kenyan Rift Valley 2.7–2.55 Ma: implications for the evolution of early hominin ecosystems. J. Hum. Evol. 53:478–503
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Kutzbach JE, Guan J, He F, Cohen AS, Orland IJ, Chen G. 2020. African climate response to insolation and glaciation: 140,000-year climate simulation with implications for early human environments. PNAS 117:2255–64
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Lamb HF, Bates R, Bryant CL, Davies S, Huws DG et al. 2018. 150: 000-year palaeoclimate record from northern Ethiopia supports early, multiple dispersals of modern humans from Africa. Sci. Rep. 8:1077
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Lane CS, Chorn BT, Johnson TC. 2013. Ash from the Toba supereruption in Lake Malawi shows no volcanic winter in East Africa at 75 ka. PNAS 110:8025–29
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Lane CS, Lowe DJ, Blockley SPE, Suzuki T, Smith VC. 2017. Advancing tephrochronology as a global dating tool: applications in volcanology, archaeology, and palaeoclimatic research. Quat. Geochron. 40:1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Lane CS, Martin-Jones C, Johnson TC. 2018. A cryptotephra record from the Lake Victoria sediment core record of Holocene palaeoenvironmental change. Holocene 28:1909–17
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Leet K, Lowenstein TK, Renaut RW, Owen RB, Cohen AS. 2021. Labyrinth patterns in Magadi cherts: evidence for early formation from siliceous gels. Geology 49:1137–42
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Lepre CJ, Roche H, Kent DV, Harmand S, Quinn RL et al. 2011. An earlier origin for the Acheulian. Nature 477:82–85
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Levin N. 2015. Environment and climate of early human evolution. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 43:405–29
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Lewin R. 1981. Lake bottoms linked with human origins. Science 211:564–66
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Liddy HM, Feakins SJ, Tierney JE. 2017. Cooling and drying in northeast Africa across the Pliocene. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 449:430–38
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Lisiecki LE, Raymo ME. 2005. A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records. Paleoceanography 20:PA1003
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Lowe DJ. 2011. Tephrochronology and its application: a review. Quat. Geochron. 6:107–53
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Lupien RL, Russell JM, Feibel C, Beck C, Castañeda I et al. 2018. A leaf wax biomarker record of early Pleistocene hydroclimate from West Turkana, Kenya. Quat. Sci. Rev. 186:225–35
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Lupien RL, Russell JM, Subramanian A, Kinyanjui R, Beverly EJ et al. 2021. Eastern African environmental variation and its role in the evolution and cultural change in Homo over the last 1 million years. J. Hum. Evol. 157:103028
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Lupien RL, Russell JM, Yost CL, Kingston JD, Deino AL et al. 2019. Vegetation change in the Baringo Basin, East Africa across the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation 3.3–2.6 Ma. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 570:109426
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Lyell C. 1863. The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man. London: John Murray
  75. Lyons RP, Scholz CA, Cohen AS, King JW, Brown ET et al. 2015. A continuous 1.3 million year record of East African hydroclimate, and implications for patterns of evolution and biodiversity. PNAS 112:15568–73
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Maxbauer DP, Feinberg JM, Fox DL, Clyde WC 2016. Magnetic minerals as recorders of weathering, diagenesis, and paleoclimate: a core–outcrop comparison of Paleocene–Eocene paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, WY, USA. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 452:15–26
    [Google Scholar]
  77. McHenry LJ, Stainstreet IG, Stollhofen H, Njau JK, Toth N, Schick K. 2020. Tuff fingerprinting and correlations between OGCP cores and outcrops for Pre-Bed I and Beds I/II at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 548:109630
    [Google Scholar]
  78. McNamara K, Cashman KV, Rust AC, Fontijn K, Chalié F et al. 2018. Using lake sediment cores to improve records of volcanism at Aluto volcano in the Main Ethiopian Rift. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 19:3164–88
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Miebach A, Stolzenberger S, Wacker L, Hense A, Litt T 2019. A new Dead Sea pollen record reveals the last glacial paleoenvironment of the southern Levant. Quat. Sci. Rev. 214:98–116
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Muiruri VM, Owen RB, de Cort G, Renaut RW, Rabideaux NM et al. 2021a. Middle Pleistocene to recent diatoms and stratigraphy of the Magadi Basin, south Kenya Rift. J. Paleolimnol. 65:315–33
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Muiruri VM, Owen RB, Lowenstein TK, Renaut RW, Marchant R et al. 2021b. A million year vegetation history and palaeoenvironmental record from the Lake Magadi Basin, Kenya Rift Valley. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 567:110247
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Nielsen R, Akey JM, Jakobsson M, Pritchard JK, Tishkoff S, Willerslev E 2017. Tracing the peopling of the world through genomics. Nature 541:302–10
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Njau J, Toth N, Schick K, Stainstreet IG, McHenry LJ, Stollhofen H. 2021. The Olduvai Gorge Coring Project: drilling high resolution palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental archives to constrain hominin evolution. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 561:110059
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Oppenheimer C. 2002. Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba ≈74 kyr BP?. Quat. Sci. Rev. 21:1593–609
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Otto-Bliesner BL, Russell JM, Clark PU, Liu Z, Overpeck JT et al. 2014. Coherent changes of southeastern equatorial and northern African rainfall during the last deglaciation. Science 346:1223–27
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Owen RB, McNulty E, Muiruri V, Billingsley A, Luo S et al. 2019. Quaternary history of the Lake Magadi basin, southern Kenya Rift: evidence from outcrop and cores. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 518:97–118
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Owen RB, Muiruri VM, Lowenstein TK, Renaut RW, Rabideaux N et al. 2018. Progressive aridification in East Africa over the last half million years and implications for human evolution. PNAS 115:11174–79
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Partridge T, Kerr SJ, Metcalfe SE, Scott L, Talma AS, Vogel JC. 1993. The Pretorial Saltpan: a 200,000 year southern African lacustrine sequence. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 101:317–37
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Pays O, Blanchard P, Valeix M, Chamaille-Jammes S, Duncan P, Periquet S 2012. Detecting predators and locating competitors while foraging: an experimental study of a medium-sized herbivore in an African savanna. Oecologia 169:419–30
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Pollisar PJ, Rose C, Uno K, Phelps SR, deMenocal P. 2019. Synchronous rise of African C4 ecosystems 10 million years ago in the absence of aridification. Nat. Geosci. 12:657–60
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Potts R. 1996. Evolution and climate variability. Science 273:922–23
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Potts R. 1998. Variability selection in hominid evolution. Evol. Anthropol. 7:81–96
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Potts R, Behrensmeyer AK, Faith JT, Tryon CA, Brooks AS et al. 2018. Environmental dynamics during the onset of the Middle Stone Age in eastern Africa. Science 360:86–90
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Potts R, Deino AL. 1995. Mid-Pleistocene change in large mammal faunas of East Africa. Quat. Res. 43:106–13
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Potts R, Dommain R, Moerman JW, Behrensmeyer AK, Deino AL et al. 2020. Increased ecological resource variability during a critical transition in hominin evolution. Sci. Adv. 6:eabc8975
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Potts R, Faith JT. 2015. Alternating high and low climate variability: the context of natural selection and speciation in Plio-Pleistocene hominin evolution. J. Hum. Evol. 87:5–20
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Rampino MR, Ambrose SH 2000. Volcanic winter in the Garden of Eden: the Toba supereruption and the late Pleistocene human population crash. Volcanic Hazards and Disasters in Human Antiquity FW McCoy, G Heiken 71–82 Boulder, CO: Geol. Soc. Am.
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Reed KE. 2008. Paleoecological patterns at the Hadar hominin site, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia. J. Hum. Evol. 54:743–68
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Richter D, Grün R, Joannes-Boyau R, Steele TE, Amani F et al. 2017. The age of the hominin fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the origins of the Middle Stone Age. Nature 546:293–96
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Roberts HM, Ramsey CB, Chapot MS, Deino AL, Lane CS et al. 2021. Using multiple chronometers to establish a long, directly-dated lacustrine record: constraining >600,000 years of environmental change at Chew Bahir, Ethiopia. Quat. Sci. Rev. 266:107025
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Robinson JR, Rowan J, Campisano CJ, Wynn JG, Reed KE 2017. Late Pliocene environmental change during the transition from Australopithecus to Homo. . Nat. Ecol. Evol. 1:0159
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Robock A, Ammann CM, Oman L, Shindell D, Levis S, Stenchikov G 2009. Did the Toba volcanic eruption of ∼74 ka B.P. produce widespread glaciation?. J. Geophys. Res. 114:D10D10107
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Rodríguez-Cintas A, Albert RM, Bamford MK, Stanistreet IG, Stollhofen H et al. 2020. Palaeovegetation changes recorded in Palaeolake Olduvai OGCP Core 2A (2.09–2.12 Ma) Naibor Soit Formation Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 557:109928
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Russell JM, Barker P, Cohen AS, Ivory S, Kimirei I et al. 2020. ICDP Workshop on the Lake Tanganyika Scientific Drilling Project: a late Miocene–present record of climate, rifting, and ecosystem evolution from the world's oldest tropical lake. Sci. Drill. 27:53–60
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Schaebitz F, Asrat A, Lamb HF, Cohen AS, Foerster V et al. 2021. Hydroclimate changes in eastern Africa over the past 200,000 years may have influenced early human dispersal. Comm. Earth Environ. 2:123
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Scholz CA, Johnson TC, Cohen AS, King JW, Peck J et al. 2007. East African megadroughts between 135–75 kyr ago and implications for early human history. PNAS 104:16416–21
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Sier MJ, Dupont-Nivet G, Langereis C, Deino AL, Kingston JD, Cohen AS 2021. Magnetostratigraphy of the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP) Baringo-Tugen Hills Barsemoi core (Kenya). Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 570:110190
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Sier MJ, Langereis CG, Dupont-Nivet G, Feibel CS, Joordens JCA et al. 2017. The top of the Olduvai Subchron in a high resolution magnetostratigraphy from the West Turkana core WTK13, Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP). Quat. Geochron. 42:117–29
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Smith EI, Jacobs Z, Johnsen R, Ren M, Fisher E et al. 2018. Humans thrived in South Africa through the Toba eruption about 74,000 years ago. Nature 555:511–15
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Smith VC, Pearce NJ, Matthews N, Westgate JA, Petraglia MD et al. 2011. Geochemical fingerprinting of the widespread Toba tephra using biotite compositions. Quat. Int. 246:97–104
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Spoor F, Gunz P, Neubauer S, Stelzer S, Scott N et al. 2015. Reconstructed Homo habilis type OH 7 suggests deep-rooted species diversity in early Homo. Nature 519:83–86
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Spoor F, Leakey MG, Gathogo PN, Brown FH, Antón SC et al. 2007. Implications of new early Homo fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya. Nature 448:688–91
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Strait DS, Grine FE 2016. Inferring hominoid and early hominid phylogeny using craniodental characters: the role of fossil taxa. Human Evolution Source Book R Ciochon, J Fleagle 399–452 Abingdon, UK: Routledge. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Stringer C. 2016. The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens. . Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 371:20150237
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Svensson A, Bigler M, Blunier T, Clausen HB, Dahl-Jensen D et al. 2013. Direct linking of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores at the Toba eruption (74 ka BP). Clim. Past 9:749–66
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Sylvestre F, Schuster M, Vogel H, Abdheramane M, Ariztegui D et al. 2018. The Lake CHAd Deep DRILLing project (CHADRILL)—targeting ∼10 million years of environmental and climate change in Africa. Sci. Drill. 24:71–78
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Thompson JC, Mackay A, Nightingale S, Wright D, Choi J-H et al. 2018. Ecological risk, demography and technological complexity in the Late Pleistocene of northern Malawi: implications for geographical patterning in the Middle Stone Age. J. Quat. Sci. 33:261–84
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Thompson JC, Wright DK, Ivory SJ, Choi JH, Nightingale S et al. 2021. Early human impacts and ecosystem reorganization in southern-central Africa. Sci. Adv. 7:eabf9776
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Tierney JE, Russell JM, Huang Y, Sinninghe Damsté JS, Hopmans EC, Cohen AS 2008. Northern Hemisphere controls on tropical southeast African climate during the past 60,000 years. Science 322:252–55
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Trauth MH, Asrat A, Berner N, Bibi F, Foerster V et al. 2021a. Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, African climate and human evolution. Quat. Sci. Rev. 268:107095
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Trauth MH, Asrat A, Cohen AS, Duesing W, Foerster V et al. 2021b. Recurring types of variability and transitions in the ∼620 kyr record of climate change from the Chew Bahir basin, southern Ethiopia. Quat. Sci. Rev. 266:106777
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Trauth MH, Maslin MA, Deino AL, Strecker MR, Bergner AG, Duhnforth M. 2007. High- and low-latitude forcing of Plio-Pleistocene East African climate and human evolution. J. Hum. Evol. 53:475–86
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Uno KT, Polissar PJ, Jackson KE, deMenocal PB. 2016a. Neogene biomarker record of vegetation change in eastern Africa. PNAS 113:6355–63
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Uno KT, Polissar PJ, Kahle E, Feibel C, Harmand S et al. 2016b. A Pleistocene palaeovegetation record from plant wax biomarkers from the Nachukui Formation, West Turkana, Kenya. PNAS 371:20150235
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Van Valen L. 1973. A new evolutionary law. Evol. Theory 1:1–30
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Viehberg FA, Just J, Dean JR, Wagner B, Franz SO et al. 2018. Environmental change during MIS4 and MIS 3 opened corridors in the Horn of Africa for Homo sapiens expansion. Quat. Sci. Rev. 202:139–53
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Villmoare B, Kimbel WH, Seyoum C, Campisano CJ, DiMaggio EN et al. 2015. Early Homo at 2.8 Ma from Ledi-Geraru, Afar, Ethiopia. Science 347:1352–55
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Vrba ES 1988. Late Pliocene climatic events and hominid evolution. The Evolutionary History of the Robust Australopithecines F Grine 405–26 New York: Aldine de Gruyter
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Vrba ES 1995. The fossil record of African antelopes (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and paleoclimate. Paleoclimate and Evolution with Emphasis on Human Origins ES Vrba, GH Denton, TC Partridge, LH Burckle 285–24 New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Washburn S. 1960. Tools and human evolution. Sci. Am. 3:62–75
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Westover KS, Stone JR, Yost CL, Scott JJ, Cohen AS et al. 2021. Diatom paleolimnology of late Pliocene Baringo Basin (Kenya) paleolakes. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 570:109382
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Williams M. 2012. The ∼73 ka Toba super-eruption and its impact: history of a debate. Quat. Int. 258:19–29
    [Google Scholar]
  133. WoldeGabriel G, Endale T, White TD, Thouveny N, Hart WK et al. 2013. The role of tephra studies in African paleoanthropology as exemplified by the Sidi Hakoma Tuff. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 77:41–58
    [Google Scholar]
  134. WoldeGabriel G, Hart WK, Katoh S, Beyene Y, Suwa G. 2005. Correlation of Plio–Pleistocene Tephra in Ethiopian and Kenyan rift basins: temporal calibration of geological features and hominid fossil records. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 147:81–108
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Wynn JG, Reed KE, Sponheimer M, Kimbel WH, Alemseged Z et al. 2016. Dietary flexibility of Australo-pithecus afarensis in the face of paleoecological change during the middle Pliocene: faunal evidence from Hadar, Ethiopia. J. Hum. Evol. 99:93–106
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Yost CL, Cohen AS, Jackson L, Stone J 2018. Subdecadal phytolith and charcoal records from Lake Malawi, East Africa imply minimal effects on human evolution from the ∼74ka Toba supereruption. J. Hum. Evol. 116:75–94
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Yost CL, Ivory SJ, Deino AL, Rabideaux N, Kingston JD, Cohen AS 2021. Phytoliths, pollen, and microcharcoal from the Baringo Basin, Kenya reveal savanna dynamics during the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 570:109779
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Zawacki EE, van Soest MC, Hodges KV, Scott JJ, Barboni M et al. 2022. Sediment provenance and silicic volcano-tectonic evolution of the northern East African Rift System from U/Pb and (U-Th)/He laser ablation double dating of detrital zircons. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 580:117375
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Zielinski GA, Mayewski PA, Meeker LD, Whitlow S, Twickler MS, Taylor K. 1996. Potential atmospheric impact of the Toba mega-eruption ∼71,000 years ago. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23:837–40
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-earth-031920-081947
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-earth-031920-081947
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error