1932

Abstract

Malaria is an infectious disease caused by parasites, transmitted by , , , and in China. In 2021, the disease was eliminated in China after more than 70 years of efforts implementing an integrated mosquito management strategy. This strategy comprised indoor residual spray, insecticide-treated bed nets, irrigation management, and rice–fish coculture based on an understanding of taxonomic status and ecological behaviors of vector species, in conjunction with mass drug administration and promotion of public education. However, China still faces postelimination challenges, including the importation of approximately 2,000–4,000 cases of malaria into the country each year, as well as widespread resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in ; these challenges require long-term vector surveillance to understand the distribution, population density, and development of resistance in vector mosquitoes to prevent local epidemics caused by imported malaria cases.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-021323-085255
2024-01-29
2024-06-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ento/69/1/annurev-ento-021323-085255.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-021323-085255&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Baimai V, Harbach R, Kijchalao U. 1988. Cytogenetic evidence for a fifth species within the taxon Anopheles dirus in Thailand. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 4:333–38
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2.
    Cao J, Sturrock HJ, Cotter C, Zhou S, Zhou H et al. 2014. Communicating and monitoring surveillance and response activities for malaria elimination: China's “1-3-7” strategy. PLOS Med. 11:e1001642
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3.
    Chang X, Zhong D, Lo E, Fang Q, Bonizzoni M et al. 2016. Landscape genetic structure and evolutionary genetics of insecticide resistance gene mutations in Anopheles sinensis. Parasites Vectors 9:228
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4.
    Chen B, Harbach RE, Butlin RK. 2002. Molecular and morphological studies on the Anopheles minimus group of mosquitoes in southern China: taxonomic review, distribution and malaria vector status. Med. Vet. Entomol. 16:253–65Indicates the diversity of the Anopheles minimus complex in China.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5.
    Chen H, Shi J, Deng M, Bai Y. 1979.. [ Study and investigation of ecological habit of Anopheles sinensis in Dengfeng County. .] Henan J. Prev. Med. 1979:54–58 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6.
    Chen J, Shang L, Feng S, Liu H, Su Y, Chen X. 2004.. [ Effect of bednets impregnated with cyfluthrin on control of malaria vectors of Anopheles. .] Chin. J. Parasit. Dis. Control 17:28–30 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7.
    Chen W, Wu K, Lin M, Li C. 2007.. [ Great achievements of anti-malaria for a half century and the present technical problems in Hainan Island. .] Chin. Trop. Med. 7: 1994 2013–16 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8.
    Chen X, Li S, Deng X, Ma Y, Liu X, Huang B. 2003.. [ Molecular identification of Anopheles hyrcanus complex in Shandong Province, China. .] Chin. J. Parasit. Dis. Control 16:46–48 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9.
    Chen Z, Ouyang R, Xiao L, Xie H, Zhang S. 2019.. [ An investigation of malaria vectors species in historical distribution area of Anopheles lesteri in Fujian Province, China. .] Chin. Vector Biol. Control 30:348–49 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10.
    Cheng H, Yang W, Kang W, Liu C. 1995. Large-scale spraying of bednets to control mosquito vectors and malaria in Sichuan, China. Bull. World Health Organ. 73:321–28
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11.
    Deng D, Qian H, Wang Y, He Q, Yang X. 1974.. [ Morphological descriptions of Anopheles balabacensis balabacensis Baisas 1936 from Hainan Island, China. .] Acta Entomol. Sin. 17:463–73 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12.
    Deng D, Qian H, Yang X. 1982.. [ Rectification of Hainan's Anopheles b. balabacensis to An. dirus Peyton et Harrison, 1979. .] Acta Zootaxon. Sin. 7:332–33 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13.
    Du Z, Gu Y, Lu Y, Li C. 1994.. [ The investigation of ecological habit of Anopheles dirus in Yunnan. .] Chin. J. Parasit. Dis. Control 7:155–56 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14.
    Ed. Comm. Malar. Control Res. China 1991. Malaria Control and Research in China Beijing: People's Med. Publ. HouseCollection of malaria control and research including vector mosquito research in China in the period before 1991, which is a crucial period of malaria control.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15.
    Fang Y, Shi W-Q, Wu J-T, Li Y-Y, Xue J-B, Zhang Y. 2019. Resistance to pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides, and the geographical distribution and polymorphisms of target-site mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel and acetylcholinesterase 1 genes in Anopheles sinensis populations in Shanghai, China. Parasites Vectors 12:396
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16.
    Fang Y, Shi W-Q, Zhang Y. 2017. Molecular phylogeny of Anopheles hyrcanus group (Diptera: Culicidae) based on mtDNA COI. Infect. Dis. Poverty 6:61
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17.
    Fang Y, Shi W-Q, Zhang Y. 2017. Molecular phylogeny of Anopheles hyrcanus group members based on ITS2 rDNA. Parasites Vectors 10:417
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18.
    Feng X, Feng J, Zhang L, Tu H, Xia Z. 2022. Vector control in China, from malaria endemic to elimination and challenges ahead. Infect. Dis. Poverty 11:54
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19.
    Gao B, Feng S, Kang W, Liu Q, Yu T. 2000.. [ Rotation of irrigation and drought for sustaining control malaria. .] J. Pract. Parasit. Dis. 8:162–64 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20.
    Gao H, Wang S. 2021.. [ Malaria transmission block by vector Anopheles mosquito gut symbiotic bacteria: 20 years progress and prospect. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 32:509–12 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21.
    Gao Q, Beebe NW, Cooper RD. 2004. Molecular identification of the malaria vectors Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in central China using polymerase chain reaction and appraisal of their position within the Hyrcanus group. J. Med. Entomol. 41:5–11
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22.
    Ge F, Sun Z, Ge F, Wen D, An Z 1978.. [ Preliminary studies on the effect of wet irrigation on paddle field for the control of breeding of mosquito larvae. .] Chin. J. Prev. Med. 1:20–22 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23.
    Ge F, Sun Z, Jiang Q, Sun Y. 1981.. [ The study on the control of mosquitoes in the paddy field by wet irrigation in the alluvial plain of the Yellow River. .] Acta Ecol. Sin. 1:168–75 ( In Chinese )A first practice case of wet irrigation for mosquito control in a rice field.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24.
    Gu Z, Shang L, Chen J, Zheng X, Su Y et al. 2001.. [ The role of Anopheles anthropophagus in malaria transmission in in Xinyang City of Henan Province. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 19:31–34 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25.
    Guo C, Li J, Qin Y. 2007.. [ Investigation on geographical distribution‚ ecological feature and malaria transmission of Anopheles in Guangxi. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 8:112–15 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26.
    Harbach R, Garros C, Manh N, Manguin S. 2007. Formal taxonomy of species C of the Anopheles minimus sibling species complex (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa 1654:41–54
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27.
    He Y, Tang D, Ji W, Liu S 1994.. [ Field observation on effect of deltamethrin impregnated bed nets for the control of Anopheles dirus and interruption transmission malaria. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 5:413–15 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28.
    Huang G. 2002.. [ Research progress of distribution, ecology, transmission of malaria and control of Anopheles anthropophagus in China. .] Hubei J. Prev. Med. 13:16–17, 19 (In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29.
    Huang G, Huang X, Zhang H, Chen G, Min J et al. 1994. [Studies on the bionomics and the role of Anopheles anthropophagus in malaria transmission in low mountain and hilly area, Hubei Province.]. Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 5:283–86 (In Chinese)
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30.
    Huang G, Li H, Zhang H, Lan M, Chen G et al. 2002.. [ Study on habits and characteristic and suck blood taxis of Anopheles anthropophagus in a Hong Shan South Area. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 13:410–12 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31.
    Huang G, Zhang H, Liu J, Yuan F, Yu P et al. 2000.. [ Study on the ecology character of distribution and role of malarial transmission in Anopheles anthropophagus in Hubei‚ China. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 11:208–12 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32.
    Inst. Parasit. Dis., Chin. Acad. Med. Sci., Hainan Isl. Inst. Parasit. Dis., Guangdong Prov. Inst. Parasit. Dis. 1980.. [ Ecological characteristics and control of Anopheles barabensis, an important vector of malaria in Hainan Island. .] Chin. J. Prev. Med. 14:129–32 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33.
    Jiang W, Pan J, Miao J. 1981. Hybridization between Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles lesteri anthropophagus. Bull. Entomol. Res. 2:103
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34.
    Li B, Zhang J, Liu W, Peng J, Luo Y, Xu R. 1986. [Effect of pisciculture on mosquito control in paddy field.]. Chin. J. Biol. Control 2:135–37 (In Chinese)
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35.
    Li C, Shang X, Pi Q, Zhang H, Tong L. 2015. [Analysis on the density and ecological habit of the main vector Anopheles in Hubei Province.]. Int. J. Med. Parasit. Dis. 42:328–31 (In Chinese)
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36.
    Li J, Li F, Li Y, Guo C, Wang H et al. 1989.. [ Experimental observation of hybridization of Anopheles sinensis and An. lesteri anthropophgus. .] Chin. J. Schistosomiasis Control 1:41–43 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37.
    Li J, Song Z, Piao G. 2018.. [ Species identification of Anopheles mosquitoes from the Tumen river basin in Yanbian area of Jilin Province based on morphological and molecular characteristics. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 29:42–46 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38.
    Li L, Wu J, Zhang S, Xie H, Ouyang R et al. 2003.. [ The malaria epidemic posture and control effect in the region distributed with Anopheles minimus in Fujian Province in 1982–2001. .] Chin. J. Parasit. Dis. Control 16:33–35 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39.
    Li M. 1983.. [ The observation of ecological habit and control effect of Anopheles minumus in Huangnigou area of Hianan Island. .] Data Hyg. Dis. Guangdong Prov. 1983:68–71 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40.
    Li M, Liang Z, Chen S, Zhang J. 1983.. [ The observation of ecological habit and control effect of Anopheles minumus in Daqiao area of Baisha County of Hianan Island. .] Data Hyg. Dis. Guangdong Prov. 1983:72–77 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41.
    Li XH, Zhou HN, Xu JW, Lin ZR, Sun XD et al. 2021. Seven decades towards malaria elimination in Yunnan, China. Malar. J. 20:147
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42.
    Li Z, Li M, Pan B, Luo J, Huang Q. 1994.. [ A field trial of bednets impregnated with permethrin for the control Anopheles dirus transmitted malaria in Hainan Island, China. .] Acta Parasitol. Med. Entomol. Sin. 1:32–39 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43.
    Li ZZ, Zhang MC, Wus YG, Zhong BL, Lin GY, Huang H. 1989. Trial of deltamethrin impregnated bed nets for the control of malaria transmitted by Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles anthropophagus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 40:356–59
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44.
    Liang J, Cheng B, Zhu G, Wei Y, Tang J et al. 2016. Structural divergence of chromosomes between malaria vectors Anopheles lesteri and Anopheles sinensis. Parasites Vectors 9:608
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45.
    Liao S, Xu B, Chen C, Liang Z, Zhang H. 1991.. [ Breeding grass carp against mosquito in rice field. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 9:61–64 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46.
    Liao Z, Han Y, Chen L, Liao Z. 2010.. [ Observation on seasonal fluctuations of An. dirus and An. minimus and malaria infection in Wangxia township of Changjiang County, Hainan. .] Chin. Trop. Med. 10:1481–82 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47.
    Liao Z, He R, Han Y. 2004.. [ Observation on the blood feeding activities of Anopheles dirus at night in Wangxia township of Changjiang County, Hainan. .] Chin. Trop. Med. 4:665 In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48.
    Lin K, Yang Y, Li J. 2019.. [ Progress of insecticide resistance of the main malaria vectors in China. .] Chin. Trop. Med. 19:584–90 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49.
    Liu L, Fang Q, Hu M. 1959.. [ Study on the forms of Anopheles minimus Theobald, 1910. .] Acta Ecol. Sin. 9:154–60 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50.
    Liu Q, Cao C, Li Y, Kang W. 2002.. [ Doujiangyan irrigation system and malaria control effectiveness in Sichuan. .] J. Pract. Parasit. Dis. 10:13–15 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51.
    Liu Q, Cao C, Wang M, Kang W. 2003.. [ Implementation of agricultural irrigation strategy for control of malaria in Shibantan township of Xindu district of Chengdu city. .] Chin. Trop. Med. 3:295–97 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52.
    Liu Q, Liu X. 2021.. [ Anopheles vector control strategy and technology for eliminating the malaria in China. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 32:513–18 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53.
    Liu XB, Liu QY, Guo YH, Jiang JY, Ren DS et al. 2011. The abundance and host-seeking behavior of Culicine species (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles sinensis in Yongcheng city, People's Republic of China. Parasites Vectors 4:221
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54.
    Lu B. 1978. Integrated Management of Mosquito Beijing: Science Press
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55.
    Lu B. 1997. Fauna Sinica, Insecta, Vol. 9: Diptera: Culicidea II Beijing: Science PressContains the taxonomic system of the Anopheles mosquito, its distribution, and a taxonomic key of species in China.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56.
    Lu B. 1999. Integrated Management of Mosquito Beijing: Science Press. , 2nd ed..Presents the theory of integrated mosquito management and the control strategy for different vectors of malaria in China.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57.
    Lu B, Tan J, Li L, Xue J. 1961.. [ Observations of the nocturnal influx activity to house of common mosquitoes of Mubien, Kwangsi. .] Acta Entomol. Sin. 10:401–10 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58.
    Lu Z, Zhang J, Cao H, Liu Q, Zeng Y, Gao E. 1996.. [ Investigation on the habit of blood-sucking of Anopheles sinensis in the north Yancheng. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 7:327–28 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59.
    Luo D, Lu D, Yao R, Li P, Huo X et al. 1994. Alphamethrin-impregnated bed nets for malaria and mosquito control in China. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 88:625–28
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60.
    Ma S. 1981. Studies on the Anopheles (A.) sinensis group of mosquito in China, including four new species. Sinozoologia 1:59–69
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61.
    Ma Y, Qu F, Cao Y, Yang B. 2000.. [ On molecular identification and taxonomic status of Anopheles lesteri and Anopheles lesteri anthropophagus in China (Diptera: Culicidea). .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 18:7–10 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62.
    Ma Y, Qu F, Xu J, Zheng Z. 1998.. [ Sequence differences of ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer between Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles anthropophagus (Diptera: Culicidae). .] Acad. J. Second Mil. Med. Univ. 13:34–36 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63.
    Ma Y, Xu J. 2005. The Hyrcanus group of Anopheles (Anopheles) in China (Diptera: Culicidae): species discrimination and phylogenetic relationships inferred by ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences. J. Med. Entomol. 42:610–19
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64.
    Malar. Control Trial Work. Group Henan Prov., Zhoukou Dist. Luyi Cty. Guangtang Community 1974.. [ Continuing observation on effect of rice-fish coculture for mosquito control. .] Henan J. Prev. Med. 1974:9–14 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65.
    Malar. Control Trial Work. Group Nanyang Cty 1975. [Preliminary observation on effect of rice-fish coculture for mosquito control. .] Henan J. Prev. Med. 1975:12–16 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66.
    Miao J, Pan J, Jiang W. 1988.. [ Hybridization and chromosome observations on six species of the Anopheles hyrcanus group in China (Diptera: Culicidea). .] Zool. Res. 9:231–37, 325–26 (In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67.
    Natl. Health Comm., Natl. Admin. Dis. Prev. Control 2022. National Report of Elimination of Malaria Beijing: People's Med. Publ. House
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68.
    Ni R, Liu N, Li M, Qian W, Qiu X. 2021. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of voltage-gated sodium channel haplotypes in the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis using a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach. Parasites Vectors 14:499
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69.
    Nie Z, Sun J, Chen Z, Luo P, Zhang Y et al. 1989.. [ Application of pyrethroids-impregnated mosquito nets in malaria control. .] Bull. Acad. Mil. Med. Sci. 13:39–42 ( In Chinese ). Field research on ITNs for vector control.
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70.
    Nie Z, Sun J, Chen Z, Sun Y, Zhang Y, Lu B. 1989.. [ Observation on pyrethroids-impregnated mosquito nets for vector control of malaria. .] Chin. J. Public Health 5:36 In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71.
    Ouyang R, Xie H, Yang F, Lin Y. 2013.. [ Analysis on surveillance of malaria in Fujian Province from 2016 to 2012. .] Strait J. Prev. Med. 19:73–74 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72.
    Pan B. 2003.. [ Morphological characteristics, ecological habits and the roles of transmission of malaria of main vector of malaria. .] J. Trop. Med. 3:477–80 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73.
    Pan B, Yang W, Wu X, Zhu T, He Q. 2001.. [ Field evaluation of bednets impregnated with cyfluthrin for the control of malaria transmitted by Anopheles sinensis in Guangdong Province, China. .] Chin. J. Parasit. Dis. Control 14:10–12 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74.
    Pan B, Zhu T, Li Z, Xu R, Liu Y et al. 1999.. [ Studies on distribution‚ ecological feature‚ malaria transmission effect and control measure of Anopheles anthropophagus in Guangdong Province. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 10:374–78 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75.
    Pan J, Wu S, Wang X, Jiang W, Zhuoma Y et al. 2008.. [ Investigation on malaria transmission vectors in Otuo County, Tibet Autonomous Region. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 26:281–85 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76.
    Peyton E, Harrison B. 1979. Anopheles (Celia) dirus, a new species of the Leucosphyrus group from Thailand (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 11:40–52
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77.
    Peyton E, Harrison B. 1980. Anopheles (Cellia) takasagoensis Morishita 1946, an additional species in the Balabacensis Complex of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosq. Syst. 12:335
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78.
    Qian H, Gu Z, Shi W, Li S, Chen T. 1991.. [ Observation of nocturnal activity of Anopheles dirus in Hainan Province. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 9:7 In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79.
    Qian W, Liu N, Yang Y, Liu J, He J et al. 2021. A survey of insecticide resistance-conferring mutations in multiple targets in Anopheles sinensis populations across Sichuan, China. Parasites Vectors 14:169
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80.
    Qin Q, Li Y, Zhong D, Zhou N, Chang X et al. 2014. Insecticide resistance of Anopheles sinensis and An. vagus in Hainan Island, a malaria-endemic area of China. Parasites Vectors 7:92
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81.
    Qiu Z, Zheng L, Xie H. 2010.. [ The investigation of bloodfeeding activity and blood preference of Anopheles sinensis in Xiamen. .] Chin. J. Zoonoses 26:91 93 (In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82.
    Qu F. 1998.. [ Research progress of taxonomic status and the role of transmission of Anopheles dirus in China. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 16:72–75 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83.
    Qu F. 2005.. [ Discussion of the taxonomic status of Anopheles anthropophagus and An. lesteri in China. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 23:243–45 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84.
    Qu F. 2008.. [ Historical review on the classification and rectification of Anopheles anthropophagus to An. lesteri in China. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 26:234–35 ( In Chinese )Indicates the taxonomic status of An. lesteri in China.
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85.
    Qu F, Xu S, Xu J, Xu X. 2008. On the biosystematics of Anopheles dirus complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in China. Insect Sci. 5:246–56Indicates the taxonomic status of the Anopheles dirus complex in China.
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86.
    Ren W, Hu L, Guo L, Zhang J, Tang L et al. 2018. Preservation of the genetic diversity of a local common carp in the agricultural heritage rice-fish system. PNAS 115:E546–54
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87.
    Ruan F, Zhu T, Liu Y, Zhou H, Tan A. 2001.. [ Study on the blood-sucking habit of Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis in Hengqin Island of Zhuhai. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 12:186–88 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88.
    Rueda L, Wilkerson R, Li C. 2005. Anopheles (Anopheles) lesteri Baisas and Hu (Diptera: Culicidae): neotype designation and description. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 107:604–22
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89.
    Sallum M, Peyton E, Harrison B, Wilkerson R 2005. Revision of the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles (Cellia) (Diptera, Culicidae). Rev. Bras. Entomol. 49:1–152
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90.
    Sallum M, Peyton EL, Wilkerson R. 2005. Six new species of the Anopheles leucosphyrus group, reinterpretation of An. elegans and vector implications. Med. Vet. Entomol. 19:158–99
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91.
    Shang L, Chen J, Li D, Li P, Su Y, Liu H. 2007.. [ Study on distribution‚ ecological feature and malaria transmission effect of Anopheles anthropophagus in Henan Province, China. .] J. Pathog. Biol. 2:304–6 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92.
    Shanghai Inst. Parasit. Dis., Hainan Isl. Inst. Parasit. Dis., Guangdong Prov. Inst. Parasit. Dis. 1979.. [ Ecological habits, malaria transmission and control tests of Anopheles barabensis on Hainan Island (preliminary draft). .] Data Hyg. Dis. Guangdong Prov. 1979:77–86 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93.
    Sheng B, Deng D, Sun J, Huang Q, Chen D, He Q. 1963.. [ A study of the bionomics of Anopheles leucosphyrus Donitz in Hainan Island. .] Acta Entomol. Sin. 12:29–36 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94.
    Shi H, Huang M, Huang D, Li Y, Yuan Z. 1996.. [ Hybridization experiments by using Anopheles minimus obtained from southern and northern parts of Guangxi. .] J. Guangxi Med. Univ. 13:1–3 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95.
    Shi H, Tian C, He D. 1999.. [ Hybridization experiments using Anopheles minimus from Hainan and Guangxi. .] J. Guangxi Med. Univ. 16:10–11 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96.
    Shi H, Tian C, Li Y, Lu Z. 2006.. [ Hybridization experiments by using Anopheles minimus from Lingyun and Yuanjiang. .] J. Guangxi Med. Univ. 23:528–29 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97.
    Shi H, Yuan Z, He D, Huang R, Li Y. 1994.. [ Hybridization experiments using Anopheles minimus from southern and western parts of Guangxi. .] J. Guangxi Med. Univ. 11:365–67 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98.
    Shi H, Zhao T, Zhu L, Wang S, Lu B. 2003.. [ Studies on the difference of sequences of rDNA-ITS2 Spacer of Anopheles minimus complex and their inheritance variations. .] Acta Parasitol. Med. Entomol. Sin. 10:83–88 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99.
    Sun DW, Du JW, Wang GZ, Li YC, He CH et al. 2015. A cost-effectiveness analysis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination in Hainan Province, 2002–2012. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 93:1240–48
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100.
    Tan WL, Li CX, Lv RC, Dong YD, Guo XX et al. 2019. The polymorphism and geographical distribution of knockdown resistance of adult Anopheles sinensis populations in eastern China. Malar. J. 18:164
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 101.
    Tan WL, Wang ZM, Li CX, Chu HL, Xu Y et al. 2012. First report on co-occurrence knockdown resistance mutations and susceptibility to beta-cypermethrin in Anopheles sinensis from Jiangsu Province, China. PLOS ONE 7:e29242
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 102.
    Walton C, Handley JM, Kuvangkadilok C, Collins FH, Harbach RE et al. 1999. Identification of five species of the Anopheles dirus complex from Thailand, using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Med. Vet. Entomol. 13:24–32
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103.
    Wang DQ, Xia ZG, Zhou SS, Zhou XN, Wang RB, Zhang QF. 2013. A potential threat to malaria elimination: extensive deltamethrin and DDT resistance to Anopheles sinensis from the malaria-endemic areas in China. Malar. J. 12:164
    [Google Scholar]
  104. 104.
    Wang G, Guo X, Song F, Zheng W, Tan W et al. 2019. Is genetic continuity between Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) and its sibling species due to gene introgression or incomplete speciation?. J. Med. Entomol. 56:1239–52
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105.
    Wang SQ, Li YC, Zhang ZM, Wang GZ, Hu XM et al. 2014. Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China. Malar. J. 13:362
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106.
    Wang W, Zhou H, Liu Y, Li J, Cao Y, Cao J. 2013.. [ Comparison of seasonal fluctuation and nocturnal activity patterns of Anopheles sinensis in different regions of Jiangsu Province. .] Chin. Trop. Med. 13:292–95 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 107.
    Wang X, Du Z, Lu Y, Huang R, Zhu G et al. 1999.. [ Bionomics of Anopheles minimus and its role in malaria transmission in south parts of Yunnan. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 10:343–46 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 108.
    Wang X, Townson H, Wang P, Li J. 2001.. [ Sequence differences of second internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA in Anopheles minimus. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 12:24–27 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109.
    Wang X, Zhang J. 1957.. [ The outdoor nocturnal biting activity of Anopheles hyrcanus var. sinensis in relation to the factors of temperature, humidity, light and rain. .] Acta Entomol. Sin. 7:473–80 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 110.
    Wang X, Zhao T, Du Z, Liu M, Lu B. 2007.. [ Study on the relationship between the environment changing with the house invading of Anopheles minimus. .] Acta Parasitol. Med. Entomol. Sin. 14:158–61 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  111. 111.
    Wang Y, Yu W, Shi H, Yang Z, Xu J, Ma Y. 2015. Historical survey of the kdr mutations in the populations of Anopheles sinensis in China in 1996–2014. Malar. J. 14:120
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 112.
    Wilkerson R, Li C, Rueda L, Kim H-C, Klein T et al. 2003. Molecular confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles) lesteri from the Republic of South Korea and its genetic identity with An. (Ano.) anthropophagus from China (Diptera: Culicidae). Zootaxa 378:15
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 113.
    Wu K, Chen W, Wang Z, Cai X, Deng D et al. 1993.. [ Studies on distribution and behavior of Anopheles minimus and its role of malaria transmission in Hainan Province at present. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 11:42–45 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 114.
    Wu N. 1984.. [ Rice-fish coculture, important method for mosquito and mosquito borne disease. .] China Fish. 1984:19 In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 115.
    Wu N, Liao G, Li D, Luo YL, Zhong G. 1991. The advantages of mosquito biocontrol by stocking edible fish in rice paddies. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 22:436–42
    [Google Scholar]
  116. 116.
    Wu N, Qin L, Liao G, Zhou W, Geng W et al. 1993. Field evaluation of bednets impregnated with deltamethrin for malaria control. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 24:664–71
    [Google Scholar]
  117. 117.
    Wu Q, Sun D, Li S, Zeng X, Zeng L et al. 2022.. [ Investigation on resistance and resistance-conferring mutations in Anopheles sinensis in Sanya, Hainan Province, China. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 33:666–71 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  118. 118.
    Wu Z, Kan S, Li Y, Xie M, Yuan Z et al. 1990.. [ Four-year longitudinal observation of DDT indoor residual spraying for mosquito control of falciparum malaria. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 8:231–32 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  119. 119.
    Xu B. 1986.. [ Geographical distribution and ecological habits of Anopheles anthropophagus in Fujian Province. .] Wuyi Sci. J. 6:271–73 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  120. 120.
    Xu B, Wu J, Zheng C, Chen F. 1987.. [ Study of large area DDT residual spraying against Anopheles anthropophilus for malaria epidemic control. .] Chin. J. Prev. Med. 1987:340 In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  121. 121.
    Xu B, Xu L, Li L, Jiang F, Huang J et al. 2001.. [ Impact of paddy irrigation to density and dynamics of Anopheles anthropophagus. .] J. Pract. Parasit. Dis. 9:156–58 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  122. 122.
    Xu B, Xu L, Li L, Wu J, Zheng C et al. 2001.. [ The effect of the surviving Anopheles anthropophagus eradicated in Fujian Province. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 12:421–23 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  123. 123.
    Xu B, Xu L, Xie H, Zhu T, Liu C et al. 2005.. [ Blood preference of Anopheles anthropophagus in cattle as studied in China. .] Chin. J. Zoonoses 21:230–33 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  124. 124.
    Xu J, Xu L. 1975.. [ Studies on the Anopheles hyrcanus group of mosquitoes in China. .] Acta Entomol. Sin. 18:77–104 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  125. 125.
    Xu JN, Qu FY. 1997. Ribosomal DNA difference between species A and D of the Anopheles dirus complex of mosquitoes from China. Med. Vet. Entomol. 11:134–38
    [Google Scholar]
  126. 126.
    Xu R, Lu B, Chen X, Nie Z, Jiang Z, Zhang R. 1989.. [ Experiment hut studies on the effect of bed nets impregnated with permethrin on mosquitoes. .] Bull. Acad. Mil. Med. Sci. 13:435–41 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  127. 127.
    Xu R, Lu B, Chen X, Nie Z, Jiang Z, Zhang R. 1989.. [ The experimental studies on the effect of mosquito nets impregnated with deltamethrin to mosquitoes in hut. .] J. Prev. Med. Chin. People's Lib. Army 7:140–46 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  128. 128.
    Xu X, Xu J, Qu F. 1998. A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assay for species A and D of the Anopheles dirus (Diptera: Culicidae) species complex based on ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer sequence. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 14:385–89
    [Google Scholar]
  129. 129.
    Xue R, Lu B, Jing M. 1990.. [ Physioecological study on overwintering Anopheles sinensis. .] Acta Entomol. Sin. 33:444–49 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  130. 130.
    Yan F, Run W, Pan J, Yu K, Chen H, Yao L. 2019.. [ An analysis of surveillance results of malaria vectors in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2012 to 2017. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 30:540–44 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  131. 131.
    Yang C, Feng X, Liu N, Li M, Qiu X. 2019. Target-site mutations (AChE-G119S and kdr) in Guangxi Anopheles sinensis populations along the China-Vietnam border. Parasites Vectors 12:77
    [Google Scholar]
  132. 132.
    Yang W, Xu G, Chen H, Yan J, Feng S et al. 2003.. [ Survey on resting and sucking habitus of Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis in Sichuan. .] Chin. J. Parasit. Dis. Control 16:27–29 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  133. 133.
    Yang W, Xu G, Kang Y, Gao Q, Yu T et al. 2004.. [ Studies on hybridization among Anopheles anthropophagus from different provinces of China and salivary gland chromosomes of their filial generations. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 15:85–87 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  134. 134.
    Yang X, Jiang S, Dong H, Peng H, Ma Y. 2022.. [ Research advances in the taxonomy of Anopheles hyrcanus group. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 33:313–19 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  135. 135.
    Ye Y, Xu Z, Huang M, Zhao X. 1992.. [ Hybridization experiments using Anopheles minimus from Guangxi and Yunnan. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 10:49–51, 84 (In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  136. 136.
    Yu Y, Chen D. 1984.. [ Revision and description of Anopheles ballabacensis Baisas from Yunnan, China. .] Entomotaxonomia 6:323–24 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  137. 137.
    Yu Y, Li M. 1984.. [ Notes on the two forms of Anopheles (Cellia) minimus Theobald, 19o1 in Hainan Island. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 2:33–36 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  138. 138.
    Yuan F, Huang G, Xu B. 1995.. [ Observation on effectiveness of deltamethrin-impregnated bednets for malaria control in 7 counties of Hubei Province during 1990 to 1993. .] Chin. J. Parasit. Dis. Control 8:241–43 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  139. 139.
    Zhang C, Shi G, Cheng P, Liu L, Gong M. 2017. Host preferences and feeding patterns of Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann in three sites of Shandong Province, China. J. Vector Borne Dis. 54:328–33
    [Google Scholar]
  140. 140.
    Zhang HW, Liu Y, Hu T, Zhou RM, Chen JS et al. 2015. Knockdown resistance of Anopheles sinensis in Henan Province, China. Malar. J. 14:137
    [Google Scholar]
  141. 141.
    Zhang S, Guo S, Feng X, Afelt A, Frutos R et al. 2017. Anopheles vectors in mainland China while approaching malaria elimination. Trends Parasitol. 33:889–900
    [Google Scholar]
  142. 142.
    Zhao X, Zhang Y, Qian W, Bao M, Jiang Z. 1985.. [ Mosquito-repelling effect of permethrin-treated mosquito nets. .] J. Prev. Med. Chin. People's Lib. Army 10:282–83 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  143. 143.
    Zheng B, Tang L, Ma Y, Shi W, Zhou S, Wang X. 2005.. [ Comparative study on the resting habit of Anopheles minimus A and Anopheles minimus C in Yunnan Province. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 23:146–49 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  144. 144.
    Zheng Z, Xu B, Liu Q, Wu J, Huang B et al. 1996.. [ Survey on the blood preference of Anopheles sinensis by the net-bait men and domestic animals. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 7:324–26 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  145. 145.
    Zhou H, Lu Y, Zhu G, Sheng C. 2000.. [ Studies on chromosome and chromosomal polymorphism of Anopheles dirus in south west areas of Yunnan. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 11:110–11 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  146. 146.
    Zhou H, Lu Y, Zhu G, Sheng C, Li C, Dong L. 1998.. [ Studies on geographical distribution, ecology and habits, role in malaria transmission of Anopheles dirus in Yunnan. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 9:59–63 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  147. 147.
    Zhou S, Tang L, Gu Z, Wang Y. 2002.. [ Sequence difference of ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer in Anopheles minimus in different localities. .] Chin. J. Parasitol. Parasit. Dis. 20:31–33 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
  148. 148.
    Zhou XN. 2021. China declared malaria-free: a milestone in the world malaria eradication and Chinese public health. Infect. Dis. Poverty 10:98
    [Google Scholar]
  149. 149.
    Zhu HM, Luo SH, Gao M, Tao F, Gao JP et al. 2019. Phylogeny of certain members of Hyrcanus group (Diptera: Culicidae) in China based on mitochondrial genome fragments. Infect. Dis. Poverty 8:91
    [Google Scholar]
  150. 150.
    Zou C, Ou D, Wei H, Lin K, Zheng B et al. 2012.. [ Study on the geographical distribution of population density of Anopheles minimus and molecular identification of the species in Guangxi. .] Chin. J. Vector Biol. Control 23:101–4 ( In Chinese )
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-021323-085255
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-021323-085255
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error